Definition : For the purpose of Railway working, accident is an occurrence in the course of working of Railway which does or may affect the safety of the railway, its engine, rolling stock, permanent way and works, fixed installations, passengers or servant which affect the safety of others or which does or may cause delay to train or loss to the railway property. For statistical purposes accident has been classified in categories from A to R excluding I and O.

Classification of Accidents: (AM 117 –124)

Accidents are classified under following heads -

1. Train Accidents
2. Yard Accidents
3. Indicative Accidents
4. Equipments Failures
5. Unusual Incidents.
1. Train Accidents – Train accidents is an accident that involve a train. Train accidents are further divided as –
a. Consequential Train Accidents – Include train accidents having serious repercussion in terms of either one or many or all the following –
  •  Loss of human life
  •  Human injury.
  •  Loss of Railway property.
  •  Interruption of Rail traffic.
  •  Train accident under following classification will be termed as consequential train accident.

Collision All cases under category A1 to A4
Fire All cases under category B1 to B4
Level crossing All cases under category C1 to C4
Derailment All cases under category D1 to D4
Miscellaneous All cases under category E1

b. Other Train Accidents.- All other accidents which are not covered under the definition of consequential train accident are to be treated as other train accident.
2. Yard Accidents: All accidents that take place in a yard and does not involve a train are termed as yard accident. These include accidents falling under category A-5,B-7,C-9 and D-6.
3. Indicative accidents: In real term they are not accidents but are serious potential hazards and include all cases of train passing signal at danger, averted collision, breach of block rule coming under classification F,G and H.
a. Averted collision – An averted collision is a circumstance under which but for the vigilance shown by any person or persons, a collision could have occurred, either in the block section or within the station limits between two trains or between a train and an obstruction.
Provided further that such an occurrence may not be treated as an “Averted Accident”

i) If, outside the station limits, the distance between the two trains or the train and the obstruction at the time the train or trains have finally come to a stop, is 400 meters or more.
ii.) If, within the station limits, there is an intervening stop signal at danger governing the moving train, and compliance by the moving train with the indication conveyed by the stop signal averted the collision between the trains or between the train and the obstruction.
b. Breach of rules- When a train inters a block section without any “Authority to proceed” or with an improper authority to proceed, or is received on a blocked line not constituting an averted collision, or when it enters or is received on a wrong line at a station or a Catch / Slip siding or sand hump, it constitutes breach of Block Rules.
c. Signal passed at danger- Passenger train passed signal at danger without proper authority (H-1) and other train passed signal at danger without proper authority (H-2)
4. Equipment failure – Failure of railway equipment i.e. Engine, rolling stock, permanent way, OHE, signal and telecommunication (J,K,L,M)
5. Unusual Incident – These include cases related to law and order but not resulting in train accidents and other incidents under classification N, P,Q and R 

Reportable train accident- (AM-106)

All accident falling under the purview of section 113 of railway act 1989 are termed as reportable train accident and include following -

1. Any accident attended with loss of human life, or with grievous hurt.
2. Any collision between trains of which one is a train carrying passengers or
3. The derailment of any train carrying passenger, or of any part of such train, or
4. Accident which are attended with loss of human life in passenger trains
involving train wrecking or attempted train wrecking , cased of running over obstruction placed on the line, of passenger falling out of train or of fires in trains, or grievous hurt as defined in the Indian Penal Code , or serious damage to railway property of the value exceeding rupees 25 Lakhs which have not actually occur which by the nature of the accident might reasonably have been expected to occur and also cased interruption of any important through line of communications for at least 24 hours.

Means to report of an accident –AM 201

Every Railway servant shall report with least possible delay every “Accident” or “Unusual Occurrence ” in the course of working the Railway which may come to his notice, to the nearest station master or section in charge through the following any possible means-

1. PFT/EFT/Walkie-Talkie / VHF set /Mobile phone
2. Gate Telephone.
3. By stopping train/loco/trolly or other vehicle passing on adjacent line.
4. BSNL/MTNL Telephone
5. By sending message through a railway servant to the nearest SM.
6. Sending the light engine of the train before detaching the engine ,SR 6.09-1 should be followed, however in case of suspected sabotage, engine etc should not be disturbed ,or
7. By road transport if available.


a) Accident to a train carrying passengers which is attended with –
i. Loss of life or
ii. With grievous hurt (as per section 320 of IPC) to a passenger in the train,
iii. With serious damage to railway property of the value exceeding Rs. 2 Cror and
b) Any other accidents which in the opinion of the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or CRS require the holding of an inquiry by the CRS shall also be deemed to be a serious accident.

However the following shall be excluded -

(a) Cases of trespassers run over and injured or killed through their own carelessness or of passengers injured or killed through their own carelessness, and
(b) Cases involving persons being Railway servant or holding valid passes / ticket or otherwise who are killed or grievously injured while traveling outside the rolling stock of a passenger train such as on foot board or roof or buffer but excluding the inside of vestibules between coaches, or run over to a Level Crossing or elsewhere on the Railway track by a train , and
(c) Level crossing accident where no passenger or Railway servant is killed or grievously hurt unless the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or Commissioner of Railway Safety is of the opinion that the accident requires the holding of an inquiry by the Commissioner of Railway Safety.

Duty of Station master after accident (AM 311)

If an accident comes to the notice to the Station Master, he shall immediately -

1. Ensure that no other train enters the affected section. On Double line he must lock the commutator of the block instrument controlling the affected section in ‘Train on Line’ position.
2. Advise the controller of the accident, indicating the nature of medical and other assistance required. If the section is not controlled or if the control phone is out of order, the DOM or the CHC must be advised on the public phone or by other means available. The Station Master of adjacent station and other major station
should also be advised accordingly.
3. Take action to protect and safe Guard Railway and public property.
4. Collect medical aid, if required, locally from the nearest hospitals, dispensaries and doctors. In order to convey medical help to the site of the accident, trolleys may be sent out and train engines utilized or outside conveyance requisitioned, if necessary .In this connection, he must requisition help from the local police and Magistrate.
5. Report the accident to all concerned as prescribed in rules.
6. Call all the ‘Off’ duty staff and allot them specific duties for relief and rescue.
7. Arrange to provide all sort of assistance to the affected passengers such as catering, drinking water, issue of complimentary passes, free messages to relatives etc.
8. Open information counter and booth for giving information to the public regarding name of the injured / dead passenger and regulation /diversion of the train etc. STD booth located at stations /adjacent areas should be utilized for giving relevant information.
9. Arrange for whatever assistance is required in connection with clearing arrangements, transshipment etc. and provide lights, refreshments, manual help and any other requirements which can be procure within his resources.
10. Arrange for the section to be cleared of unaffected vehicles as early as possible, but if the accident is attributed to sabotage or suspected sabotage he shall not do so, but wait for instructions from the Officer in charge at site.
11. Remain on-duty taking orders from the control and the Officer in charge of break down operations till the accident is cleared or he is replaced by a competent person.


After accident cope the situation the steps taken by Rail administration called “Disaster Management”

The top priority of Railway to provide accident free, safe journey. For which continuous effort are carrying on. New technology has been introduced in Railway. Effort are taken to less dependence on human being and system made such type that human failure does not made any unusual.
The best training has been given to employee and how to stress free this also describe by training. But there are always chances of accident and to cope the situation of the system called” Disaster Management”.
In every 150 to 200 k.m. Accident relief train and Medical relief train provided and staffs are made available round the clock. Target time for dispatched also fixed. Each train movement Rail employee trained in First Aid.
First aid available with Station Master and Guard, Phone no. of local administrative Offices, hospitals and their name displayed for quick information and assistance.

Object of Disaster Management (AM - 301)

1. Protection of adjacent running line.
2. Protect ion of the site of accident.
3. Save life and alleviate suffering.
4. Protect property including mails.
5. Provide succor and help the passengers at the site of the accident.
6. Transportation of stranded passengers.
7. Preservation of clue and ascertain the cause of the accident.
8. Restore through communication.

Hooter code

Hooter will blow to inform about accident to all concerned on those station where Accident relief train and Medical relief van is available.
Each hooter will blow for 45 second and the time interval between the hooter codes will keep 5 seconds for clear understanding.

The meaning of hooter code is as under –

Two Hooter -                                     ART required at home station.
Three Hooter -                                   ART required at outside the Home station.
Four Hooter -                                    ART and MRV required at Home station.
Five Hooter -                                     ART and MRV required at Outside the home station.
One long Hooter (90 second) -          For Cancellation of Medical Van and Breakdown train.

Note - Each hooter code will be repeated twice with an interval of five minutes. 

Target time for turning out the Breakdown trains.

ART During day. -                       30 minutes.
During night. -                              45 minutes.
Note : The time is reckoned from the time of ordering to the time of leaving the shed.

Target time for turning out the Medical Van.

MRV In case of Double exit siding -       15 minutes.
In case of Single exit siding -                  20 minutes.
Note: The time is reckoned from the time of ordering to the time of dispatch.

General Instructions :

1. Accident relief train run on priority, giving precedence of all trains.
2. MRV should be preceding over Relief train.
3. MRV and ART should be dispatched on their schedule time.
4. Relief train should not be delayed for Guard, the breakdown in charge will carry the train and Guard will send by following means.

Duties of Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot in case of an Accident (AM 307)

At the time of accident the Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot must immediately -

1. Switch on the flasher light of the engine and switch ‘Off’ the head light of the engine.
2. Sound short whistle frequently to warn the Loco Pilot of an approaching train.
3. Arrange to protect the adjacent line and then the same line in accordance with GR 6.03 and SR 6.03-1. Information should be exchanged with Guard on Walkie Talkie set or other means available.
4. Arrange to advise control and adjacent stations about the accident by available means.
5. Take such technical precautions as may be necessary or as prescribed by special instructions to make the train safe.
6. Render all possible Assistance to Guard particularly, in the assessment of damage to rolling stock and or locomotive and the nature of assistance required.

Coaching codes

Coaching codes

Vehicle codes for Coaching stock:- The following code letters must be used to designate the
various designations of coaching stock in use:


Nature of stock Transportation Codes
1. Bogie first class F
2. Bogie first class with servants compartment FQ
3. Bogie first class with coupe compartment FC
4. Bogie first class with coupe and attendant compartment FCQ
5. Bogie second class (self generating) GS
6. Four wheeled first and second class EFS
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
7. Four wheeled first class EF
8. Bogie first and second class FS
9. Bogie first and second class with attendant compartment FSQ
10. Bogie first with coupe and second-class with attendant comp. FCSQ
11. Bogie first class AC and First class luggage and Brake comp. ACFLQ
12. Bogie first with coupe AC and FC and attendant compartment ACFQ
13. Bogie first class air conditioned FAC
14. Bogie fully air conditioned WAC
15. – do – with coupe and second FCSC
16. Bogie first and second class FS
17. Bogie first with coupe second luggage and brake FCSLR
18. Bogie first with coupe second FCS
19. – do – attendant compartment, luggage and brake FCSQLR
20. Four wheeled second class ES
21. Bogie second class 3 tier sleeping car (vestibule) WGSCN
22. Bogie second class S
23. – do – with permanent ladies compartment GSY
24. Bogie prison van VJ
25. Bogie lower class day cum sleeping car WGSCG
26. Four wheeled freight van of 4 wheeler luggage van EL
27. Bogie freight van or luggage van L
28. Four wheeled brake van with luggage compartment ELR
29. Bogie parcel van VP
30. Four wheeled parcel van EVP
31. Four wheeled fruit van EVF
32. Bogie luggage and brake van LR
33. Bogies second class luggage and brake van SLR
34. Bogie second and full postal van SPP
35. Bogie second class and 2/3rd postal van PPE
36. Bogie full postal van PP
37. Bogie second class and ¾th postal van PPI
38. Bogie luggage brake and full postal van LRPP
39. Bogie second and ¼th postal van PPQ
40. Bogie second and ½nd postal van PPH
41. Four wheeled prison van EVJ
42. Four wheeled refrigerator van EVR
43. Bogie dining car CD
44. Bogie kitchen car CK
45. Bogie inspection car CE
46. Bogie tourist car first class CT
47. Bogie tourist car second class CTT
48. Bogie state saloon for ministers or VIPs CR
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
49. Bogie inspection car (administrative) RA
50. Bogie inspection car (Jr. administrative) RB
51. Bogie subordinate carriage RD
52. Four / Six wheeled inspection car (Sr. Assistants) ERB
53. Four wheeled inspection car (Jr. Assistants) ERC
54. Four wheeled subordinate inspection car ERD
55. Bogie cinema cum exhibition car RPCB
56. Four wheeled mobile TXR van ERW
57. Four wheeled store van ERS
58. Bogie store van RS
59. Bogie accident tool or relief van RT
60. Four wheeled accident tool or relief van ERT
61. Four wheeled traveling charging or dynamo van ERM
62. Bogie traveling charging or dynamo van RM
63. Four wheeled crew rest van ERR
64. Bogie medical van or mobile dispensary van RH
65. Four wheeled medical van ERH
66. Four wheeled horse box (double) EHH
67. Mobile library van ERL
68. Four wheeled motor van EVK
69. Rail motor car, first class ZZF
70. Bogie military car vestibule WM
71. Bogie ward cum dining car air conditioned WACMRD
72. Bogie kitchen car MK
73. Bogie kitchen car Indian troops vestibule WML
74. Bogie dispensary car vestibule WMHRA
75. Bogie generator car vestibule WMRM
76. Bogie officers car MF
77. Bogie family car MR
78. Bogie air conditioned sick officers car WACMRA
Note: - 1. “Y” Suffixed to indicate permanent ladies compartment.
“Y” Prefixed to indicate suburban stock
“A” Prefixed to indicate articulated vehicle
“W” Prefixed to indicate vestibule vehicle
“G” Prefixed to indicate self generating equipment
2. In case two or three letters out of “Y” “A” “W” are to be used, they will
be shown in the above order when prefixing or suffixing to codes.
3. The code letters of each description of coaching vehicle are placed at each
end of the vehicle on the left bottom end panel at diagonally opposite
corners. The staff must refer to these code letters in case of doubt.

4. All coaching stock is vacuum braked.

Rules for booking Special Coaches & Special Trains on FTR

Rules for booking Special Coaches & Special Trains on FTR

1. Reservation of special coaches / trains: Application for reservation of carriage must be made through the SM of originating station to the CPTM, giving details of the journey such as destination, route to be followed, halts enroute, and the specific train to which the coach is to be attached at least 30 days in advance and not more than 6 months prior to the commencement of journey.
2. In case any party wishes to requisition a special coach at a short notice of less than 30 days specific permission must be obtained from CPTM.
3. It will be the sole discretion of the Railway Administration to allot a coach / train and programme its movement depending on the availability of coaches, path and other operational considerations.

4. Security deposit cum registration charge:

a) An amount as prescribed from time to time which at present is Rs.10,000/- per coach as Registration Charge-cum-Security Deposit will be payable at the station from where the proposed journey will commence, of this half will be retained as Security Deposit & the balance amount would be adjusted against the fare payable at the time of booking. The security deposit will be refunded by the Station Manager of the originating station on completion of the tour after adjusting any other amount of extra detention etc.
b) The deposit charges for allotment of reserved coaches for journeys performed by railway employees and their families on privilege pass& passes/PTOs would be an amount as prescribed from time to time, which at present is Rs.10,000/- per coach.


Tourists are exempted from paying the Deposit for reserved carriage provided:-
i) They apply through recognized Tourist Agents who should give a guarantee to the Railways.
ii) Their journeys are sponsored or recommended by Indian Embassies abroad.
5. Reserved coaches are not guaranteed – Railway Administration do not guarantee reserved Carriages / Coaches by any particular train and will admit no claim for compensation for inconvenience, loss or extra expenses due to such accommodation not being provided or attached to trains by which asked for.
6. Parties requiring such accommodation need not be members of the same family.
7. The reservation of coach / special train will be on priority of date of registration i.e. application along with Security Deposit receipt duly forwarded by Station Manager / Station Master of originating station endorsing the M.R. No. and date of the Security Deposit.
8. Charges for Special Coaches / Special Trains will be computed point to point on the basis of full adult Mail / Express fare of the concerned class for the actual number of passengers traveling or the marked carrying capacity of the coach which ever is more + Security Deposit Charges + Services Charges + Empty Haulage Charges + Detention Charges @ prescribed from time to time.
9. The charges must be paid in full 48 hours in advance of the departure of the train to which Special Coach are to be attached failing which it will be deemed that the running of Special Coach has been countermanded by the organizers. The entire registration cum Security Deposit will be forfeited in this case. Same Rule is also applicable in the case of Special Train.
10. As prescribed from time to time the minimum Composition of Special Train at present is 15 coaches and minimum chargeable distance is 500 Kms for Mail / Express trains both for coach as well as special train.
11. No concession will be allowed for booking of Special Coaches. Charges will be recovered in full for children, students, Sr. Citizens etc.



Coaching Vehicle census is conducted as and when, the directives are received from Railway Board. Prior to conducting a coaching vehicle census, CPTM holds a meeting and instructs the census officials. The month, date time of census is notified to all the staff involving in census. Unlike, goods wagon census, coaching vehicles census is not laborious, as the vehicles are generally run in rakes and they are keenly monitored daily. A Cardex system in the coaching cabinet was a method to monitor the movement of individual coaches. After full implementation of COIS, the monitoring of the movement of coaches will be further made easy.

All the staff involved in the census duties are to be briefed about their responsibilities. A mock census has to be conducted on the nominated day prior to the official census. The lacunae in the mock drill are to be identified and corrected. During the enumeration each vehicle should be stenciled by a census symbol of equilateral of six inches each side in white colour at extreme left of the vehicles on both sides. A representative of mechanical branch also involved to identify the mechanical code of the wagons. Each railway should update the list of the condemned vehicles after the last census was held, with necessary details, well before the census. The census timings are to be followed strictly.

Advantages in coaching vehicle census:

a) To know the location of loading vehicles and their status.
b) To identify and take them to the maintenance depot in case the coaches have become due for POH and other repairs.
c) To identify the area where excessive holding exist, which leads to coaching yard congestion.
d) To compare the requirements with that of allotment and to suggest better supply.
e) To compile the utilisation statistics and to see the viability for future utilisation.
f) For introduction of new coaching trains.



As far as the passenger train operation is concerned the sole and core factor that gauges its efficiency is ‘punctuality’. It is monitored at various levels of Railway Operation and management. It is an all-important index which decides the overall working of passenger operation. It is undeniable and understandable facts that image of Railways solely depend on this factor. Any deviation or dilution of punctuality will lead to doom and gloom on the part of everyone. Considering the essence of punctual running it is the endeavor of every railway man to strain every nerve to achieve this and no stone shall be left unturned.

Concept of punctuality:

Punctuality on its own cannot be defined like any scientific item. It differs with perception of persons. What is punctuality in the eyes of a passenger may not be the same from what railways perceive. Both are striking a different note.

Passenger’s perspective:

As far as a passenger is concerned, he is more guided and governed by timings mentioned in public timetable. Accordingly he wants and wishes the train shall and must arrive and depart asper these published timings. The ‘comings’ and ‘goings’ shall not only applicable to originating destination stations, but he expects punctuality at intermediate station also. A passenger views any variation as unpunctual; he will be upset and will be in a downbeat mood if the train has not adhered to the published timings.

Indian Railway’s perspective:

Indian Railways concept of punctuality is not the same as that of a passenger. Train working is inherited with certain innate qualities. As such train being ‘track bound’ the freedom of movement is possessed with certain limitations. In the case of railways a train is said to be punctual when it reaches its destination as per the arrival time given in PTT. It might not have arrived/departed from intermediate stations according to mentioned timings. Railways also wish passengers perception of punctuality to be fulfilled, but in actual working and in practice. It may not be possible due to its uniqueness in working.

Not loosing time (NLT) concept:

In Indian Railways trains are running from one end of a country to another covering a network of more than 63000 route kms traversing through sixteen zonal railways and many divisions. Separate administrative set up is available for each zone/division and efficiency in working is judged through such unit-wise. A late running of a train in one railway/division due to any reason cannot be accounted in another ones performance. The receiving railway/division cannot be forced to accept the responsibility for late reception. The reasons for unpunctual running may be genuine or in genuine. It is unwise and undemocratic to blame another railway/division for delayed running of the train over another one. Under these circumstances, a concept of not losing time is evolved.
This means, if a train is taken over by a railway/division from another railway/division with a late arrival of say 15 minutes and if its continues to run with the same late and handed over to another railway/division with same 15 minutes or may be earlier also, then as far as this railway/division is concerned the train has not lost any time further and said to be punctual. This concept is known as ‘NOT LOSING TIME’. In case if the train is handed over by 20 minutes late, then it is derived that the train has lost punctuality only by 5 minutes.

Calculation of punctuality: 

Punctuality is calculated for train wise (Mail, Express, passenger, suburban) and gauge-wise. The formula is expressed in percentage. Targets are fixed for Zonal railways. Punctuality statistics are maintained for trains reaching destinations at right time. Punctuality statistics on Division /  Railway is also maintained, so that trains are not late over a particular Division / Railway.



Factors affecting punctuality:

1. Operating Department:

  •  Faulty time tabling.
  •  Bad controlling.
  •  Late placement of rakes on platform.
  •  Extra time in shunting, loading & unloading.
  •  Signals is not taken off in time.(Rec.& Desp.)
  •  Delay by Station staff in asking, giving & handing over the Authority to proceed to LP.
  •  Missing token / tablet.
  •  To maintain connection with the trains arriving late.
  •  Late start of trains on account of Guard.
  •  Defective rake links.
  •  Extra time at road side station for shunting
  •  Improper planning at terminal facilities.
  •  Wrong Marshalling.
  •  Defective Loco pilot / Guard links

2. Mechanical / ACT(RS):

  •  Failure of Passenger / Goods loco.
  •  Engine defects.
  •  Coach failure.
  •  Hot Axle / Flat tyre.
  •  Late turning out of train engine from shed.
  •  Air pressure / vacuum trouble, brake binding etc.
  •  Time lost on the run.l

3. S&T:

  •  Failure of Points, track, signalling or interlocking.
  •  Failure of means of line clear working i.e. Block Instrument / Block Telephone etc.
  •  Failure of Control telephones.
  •  Non availability of signal maintainer. (ESM, MSM, TCM)

4. Engineering:

  •  Excessive Engineering speed restriction. (Over and above the Engineering Allowance)
  •  Engineering block being bursted.
  •  Stopping of trains on banner flags or by showing danger signals.
  •  Rail breakage, lurch felt by loco pilot.
  •  Improper track patrolling.

5. Electrical:

  •  Defective lights and fans in trains resulting ACP by the passengers.
  •  Tripping / failure of OHE.
  •  Failure of electrical water pump.
  •  Failure of Head light of the engine or bad focusing.
  •  Bursting of Power Blocks & Power +Traffic Blocks.
  •  Train lighting and Air conditioning problems.

6. Commercial:

  •  Inadequate labour for the work of loading and unloading work.
  •  Dispute due to duplicate reservations.
  •  Insufficient halt for loading and unloading of packages.
  •  Alarm chain pulling.
  •  Overcrowding.

7. Miscellaneous:

  •  Storm.
  •  Heavy rain.
  •  Floods.
  •  Cattle run over.
  •  Accident.
  •  Public agitation.
  •  Poor visibility due to thick & fog, dust.

Remedial measures to improve punctuality - Efforts by Railways:

Loco Pilots to run at MPS – Now a day, Loco Pilots have been instructed to run at MPS always. Earlier Loco Pilots used to run at booked speed and in case of late running only they were authorized to run at MPS, to make up time. This has been dispensed with now. This will very much reduce the pressure on Loco Pilots. In case of late running, pressure was mounting on Loco Pilots and they were under tremendous stress to make up time. To avoid this extra strain, Loco Pilots are advised to run at MPS from starting station itself.

Starting a train before allowed time when arrived late – At every station a specified time is given for stopping / starting. If a train arrived after the published departure in PTT, it may be started before the allowed time after ensuring all transactions are over. These will in some extent help in minimizing the late running. It is the responsibility of all those concerned to cooperate and ensure that the business connected with the train is completed and carried out at the earliest and train started soon. This will mainly applicable to parcels loading / unloading, any attaching/detaching of coaches and subsequent examination, preparing and handing over train related documents in time etc.

Punctuality drives – To enhance and enlighten the efficiency of punctuality, at various levels punctuality drives are conducted periodically. Recurring reasons for late running are identified and instructions are issued for corrective action. Staffs are counseled and if needed to be pulled up and punished. Awards are given for fine performances. These drive help in detecting any system defects such as poor visibility of signals, poor engineman ship, inadequate sighting distance of signals etc. Reports are made out at the appropriate levels and follow-up action is initiated.

Punctuality meeting— Punctuality meetings are conducted at Zonal/divisional levels at the highest level. Reasons are analyzed and directions are issued then and there. Punctuality position from divisions is reported to Zonal headquarters and in turn to ‘Railway Board daily.

Monitoring of specified trains at specified level - Punctuality of some important trains is closely monitored at higher levels. Punctuality for such trains is watched at the level of Minister/Board officials/Zonal Railway officials. This helps in creating awareness among the staff on punctuality. By this way punctuality consciousness is developed in the minds of railway men.

Efficiency of Railway men - Train running may be put up in the following way and efficiency
can be very well judged -

Originating Station.                                                  Destination Station

1. Leaving right time                                                   1. Arriving right time
2. Leaving right time                                                   2. Arriving late
3. Leaving late                                                           3. Arriving right time
4. Leaving late                                                           4. Arriving late.

Railway men’s efforts will be appreciated and applauded once item No 1 is taken care of.. It will also be a laudable feature if the train arrived in time due to any late start (item No 3) of uncontrollable reasons.

Conclusion: Punctual running of trains is not one man’s affair. It reflects the concept of teamwork. All factors should work in tandem to achieve punctuality. A train might have traveled 500 Km punctually and only 5 Km may be left to reach the destination. A failure on the part of man or material at this stage may force the train to reach the destination late. All good efforts put up by many quarters so far for 500 Km will go waste due to failure of somebody or something. All parameters shall go hand in hand so that punctuality can be maintained always. Concerted efforts and cohesiveness in working is the need of the hour. In a world of competitiveness punctuality plays a prominent role in passenger train operation. Once railway man makes punctuality as a way of life, then the commons will be in cloud nine and Railways
will be in the seventh heaven.

Movement Advice:

1. Movement advice is an advice given by the divisional control office through Central Control to the Owning Railway of the wagon / vehicle regarding their movement on the users railway.
2. The control office advises the Central Control of the concerned Railway.
3. The Central Control conveys the message to the Central Control of the Owning Railway.
4. The movement particulars of the special kind of stock should be advised to the STM (Goods) in the HQ’s office on the telephone.
5. The advice is conveyed at 10:00 hours in the morning daily.
6. The message should be included in the daily statement of special stock submitted to the HQ’s office.
7. The movement advice helps in tracing of the wagons / vehicles and plan accordingly.
8. In the event of interruption of through communication, such advice shall be given to the Owning Railway within 48 hours.
9. The movement advice must contain all the detailed particulars of the wagon / vehicle along with contents there in.
10. Timely movement advice helps in smooth and safe movement of traffic. 

PPM (Passenger Profile Management):

1. Maximization of earnings from passenger traffic by maximizing the occupation and earnings of each train.
2. CRIS has created a website www.trainenquiry.com.
3. Zonal Railway will create a PPM 204enter under CCM/PM of each zonal railway.
4. PPM 204enter must have a good PC with internet.
5. The zonal PPM 204enter will be linked to the Railway board PPM 204enter.
6. Zonal PPM 204enter will carry out analysis of all its primary ownership coaching trains
which will include all reasoned accommodations available on these trains.
7. The zonal railway will analyze the data ware housing report options.
8. Zonal PPM centers will use the various reports to identify poorly occupied and poorly earnings trains.

a. The reason for poor occupation of each train will have to be analyzed and indicated with
proposed course of action on a daily basis
b. Zonal railway will send the details on a daily basis in an Excel sheet format enclosed herewith as an E-mail attachment to the Railway board PPM 

9. A comprehensive review of utilization of various quota at trains sources and different remote
location of Central railway train has been done under PPM.
10. Quota at various remote locations have been scrutinized and redistributed on the basis of

utilization report and wherever found suitable.



Time table is a schedule in a table form, showing details of arrivals and departures at every station of all trains carrying passengers. These time tables are issued by every zonal railway, generally every six months. However, with effect from 1st July 1991, new time table is issued once a year in July only. On Indian Railways there is another time table, "Trains at a Glance", which is issued by the Railway Board and carries stoppages of important trains at important stations only all over the Indian Railways, as against the Zonal Time Table which indicates stoppages of all scheduled trains at every station on the railways. The objectives of passenger time table are as under:

1. information for intending passengers regarding

i. schedules of arrivals and departures;
ii. through sectional and suburban trains;
iii. connections at various stations;
iv. and the amenities and facilities available to the passengers at stations;

2. a guide to the railway staff

i. in arranging trains crossings, precedence,
ii. receipt and despatch at terminals, and
iii. provision of motive power, crew, maintenance and other facilities;

3. a guide to postal services for transmission of mail;
4. a data base for calculating the requirements of rolling stock; locomotives and running staff;
5. To satisfy statutory requirements. Section 65 of the Indian Railway Act lays down that railways must exhibit time tables for the guidance of the public.

The origin of Railway time table is very interesting. Railways in Great Britain, where the railways started first, were hesitant to issue time tables and advertised fixed schedules of trains they were running. With the teething problems galore, they were not sure whether they would be able to live up the commitments after they tell the public fixed schedules of their trains. At that time, one Mr. Bradshaw used to sell maps. In order to increase his sales of maps, he also started publishing schedules of the trains which could take people to the places of which he used to sell maps. Railway companies consented to his publishing the time tables as it did not involve any commitment on their part. Soon, however, they realised the usefulness of advertisements of the fixed timings as their clientele went up and the companies started issuing the time tables themselves. With the passage of time, teething problems were also taken care of. Today, there is statutory obligation in some of the countries, for the Railway companies to publish their schedules. Indian Railways are required to do so under Section 49 of Indian Railways Act, 1989.


Time Tables can be divided into two categories:

(1) For passengers

(a) Zonal Time Table and Guide - This time table is published annually by each of the zonal railways. In addition to the train timings, there is additional information which is useful for the passengers. This mainly relates to rules regarding reservation, refunds, and cancellations of confirmed booking, fare tables and other facilities which Railway administrations provide for the convenience of passengers. Copies of these time tables are available for sale at the booking offices and book stalls.
(b) Trains at a Glance - This is an abstract form of time table for all Indian Railways. Important trains are shown with time of arrivals and departures at important stations right from the originating station to the terminating station in one table only. Users have, therefore, not to refer to a number of tables to find out the schedule of a particular train. Main points of information for passengers are also given.
(c) Military Time Table - This time table is not made available for general public. Defence is one of very big users of rail infrastructure and a number of special trains for Defence are run by Railways. In order that these trains can be run at short notice, we have detailed timings of such trains worked out, which are also revised along with revision in the public time tables from time to time. These timings are kept secret.

(2) For Railway staff

(a) Staff copy of public time table - Train timings portion of zonal time table, without the additional pages for guidance of passengers and advertisements, is bound and copies given to staff dealing with passengers for their guidance.
(b) Working Time Table - Large amount of information is required to be conveyed to the railway staff connected with running of trains and maintenance of the infrastructure on the railways. They must not only know the timings of the trains but also a lot of information about the track, signals and other facilities and this information is conveyed to the staff through the working time tables. These time tables are printed division wise, separately for passenger and goods trains. It is desirable for all railway officers to familiarize themselves with these time tables.
(c) Graphic Time Tables - These time tables are in the graph form and are prepared for the guidance of the Control staff. These time tables are prepared section wise, indicating over a graph not only Mail, Express and Passenger trains, but also Goods trains that can be run during 24 hours. These are also called 'Master Charts'. These are generally displayed in the front of the Section Controllers in their cabins, so that they can constantly relate actual running of trains to the fixed schedules laid down in the time tables.


As seen earlier, time tables are for the benefit of users as well as railways. Factors that influence framing of a time table can also be broadly classified into two categories:

(1) Users Requirement

(a) Departure and arrivals - Train journeys in India are generally long and take a lot of time. It is convenient to the passengers to leave originating station in the evening and arrive at the destination in the morning so that they are able to perform the journey without wasting any working time during the day. No wonder, most of the trains from the major cities leave in the evening and arrive in the morning. Passengers performing journeys to and from important stations enroute also like the trains to arrive at convenient timings and not in the middle of the night. All this is always not possible to accommodate, but efforts are made by Railways to adjust timings in such a manner that this requirement of passengers is kept in mind. With the increase in the number of trains, staggering of departures and arrivals become unavoidable, otherwise a lot
of additional capacity would be required at the terminals and sections to deal with large number of trains in the evenings and mornings. This would also lead to idling of assets for bulk of the time as no trains would be scheduled to leave or arrive around mid day or mid night. Trains should touch important cities and junctions at convenient time.
(b) Connections at junctions - Railway trains run between selected pair of stations. Large number of passengers travel to stations which are not served by direct trains. They have, therefore, to change trains at junction stations. It is, therefore, the requirement of the passengers that the connecting trains should leave the connecting junction station as soon after the arrival of the first train as possible, so that they are not required to waste a lot of time waiting for the next train. It is also necessary that such connections are not so very tight that the passengers miss the previous train. Railways have, therefore, to design their time tables in such a manner that passengers are reasonably assured to connection within about an hour or two of the arrival of the previous train. At certain junctions, staff are authorised to detain connecting trains up to a limit if an earlier train is running late.
(c) Halts for meals, etc. - Since railway passengers have to travel long distances and all trains are not equipped with catering facilities, halts at meal timings are provided at stations having facilities for meals, refreshments. These halts are long enough to buy their requirements from the platform.
(d) Overall speed - Whatever the requirement of passengers enroute, every long distance passenger desires to complete his journey as early as possible. There is, therefore, need to provide fast, long distance trains to cut down journey time of bulk of the passengers. Railways have, therefore, introduced a large number of super fast trains during the last decade or so.
(e) Range of travel distance - From the view point of travel distance, railway passengers can be classified into three categories:
i. Short distance - This category of passengers travel between major industrial commercial centres or capital/district cities and town or villages around such major cities. This group of passengers generally live in surrounding town and villages and commute to the city centre/industrial centres for employment regularly. The travel distance is generally up to about 80 kilometres. In very rare cases, people travel on regular basis for more than 80 kilometres also. These passengers like to reach the cities in the morning hours to be able to
attend offices/factories and want to go back as early as possible after the office is closed so as to arrive at their residence in the evening. These passengers generally travel in groups as they belong to the same place and travel together regularly. Their livelihood is dependent on punctual running of trains. They are very vociferous and do not tolerate changes which do not suit them. At locations where industries work in shifts, there is traffic around such locations both ways. It is, therefore, essential for the Railways to provide stoppages for passenger trains for the category of passengers at convenient timings. At a few places, even
long distance trains are provided halts to enable these passengers to reach their work centres in time.
ii. Medium distance - In this group passengers whose range of travel falls between 80 to 300 kilometres are included. Some of these passengers travel between two important cities and prefer to have over night trains. Alternatively, they use long distance trains which are fast, but finding accommodation on such long distance trains may be a bit difficult. A large number of passengers in this group are those who work in major cities and have roots in places where they are not able to go back every day. They stay at the place of their work and visit their native place frequently, say once or twice a month. Another section of this group are those passengers who travel mainly on social or business occasion from one village/town to another. They require at least one train a day in each direction so that they can travel conveniently.
iii. Long distance - These passengers prefer fast trains with increased level of comfort. They require trains which do not have many stops enroute and are able to cover the entire journey in as short a time as possible.

(2) Operator's Requirement

This has to be kept in mind that the trains are run for the use of passengers and their basic requirements are supreme. Railways make efforts to ensure that they are able to cater to all reasonable requirements of the users. There are, however, certain departmental requirements which influence framing of time table. These can broadly be classified into the following categories:
(a) Infra structural requirements - While continuous exercises to augment infra structural facilities available for running of trains continue, these do act as a constraint to introduction of more number of trains as well as timings when trains can be scheduled. Terminal facilities like platforms, stabling lines, examination lines and repair facilities at the passenger terminals influence not only introduction of additional trains, but also timings of the trains. As there is only a certain number of trains which can be attended to during a given time, departures and arrivals of the trains have to be so spaced as to permit handling at the terminals depending upon the layout at the terminals. Simultaneous departure of one train and reception of another train may also not be possible. While framing time table, therefore, an interval between the two operations would be required.
Availability of coaches and locomotives is another factor which influences scheduling of trains. Since these are costly assets, proper use of them has to be maintained.
Railway line also has a capacity which is provided based on certain requirements. This limits the number of trains that can run and the timing at which those trains can be run. It may be convenient for the passengers to travel at a given time but lack of adequate line capacity may force railways to run the trains at time which may not be suitable to the passengers.
These infra structural constraints can be overcome but this is very costly proposition. Even when adequate funds are available, there is long gestation period between planning and installation of facilities. This problem is particularly acute in developing countries.
(b) Maintenance requirements - The infrastructure required to run the trains also need maintenance periodically. The train services are so time tabled so as to enable the maintenance of rakes and locomotives at terminals as well as at intermediate points. Most of the routine maintenance of coaches and locomotives is attended to at one of the terminals, which is considered as the base and is responsible for proper mechanical condition of the equipment. This is also called 'Primary Maintenance'. Maintenance at the terminal at the other end is called 'Secondary Maintenance'. In addition, routine examination is carried out at important
intermediate stations also.
Another requirement of coaches enroute is cleaning, watering and that of locomotives, watering and fuelling for which time also has to be provided. In addition to the rolling stock, fixed installations like track, platforms, signals and electrical overhead equipment (OHE) also need repairs. Time tables provide a suitable block of time during day light hours for this maintenance. Efforts are made to ensure that no passenger train is scheduled during this block of time so that equipment can be maintained in proper fettle.
(c) Operational requirement - In the running of trains, there are a number of operational factors which have to be provided in the time table. There are some trains which run faster than others. Slower trains have, therefore, to be stopped to give precedence to fast trains. In addition, on a single line section, only one train can run at a time in a block section. We generally do not have facilities on such sections where two trains running in the opposite direction to each other can cross without one of them being stopped. Generally less important train is scheduled to stop for crossing of fast train. Similarly, number of platforms at terminals as well as at important junction stations may be limited and a train may be delayed for reception till an earlier train vacates the platform.
There are a number of slip coaches which are required to be attached or detached at junction stations. Additional halt is required to be provided for performing shunting for this purpose. This also necessarily slows down the trains. Indian Railways have, therefore, taken a conscious decision to reduce the number of slip coaches wherever possible and it is not very inconvenient to passengers to change trains. A large number of slip coaches have already been discontinued and trains accelerated.
(d) Change of locomotives - Locomotives required to be changed either at places where traction changes or at stations where loco shed is located and locomotives are required to go to the shed as per the loco link.
(e) Loading/unloading of parcels/luggage - Stations having lot of luggage of passengers and parcels are also required to be provided additional time to permit loading/unloading.
(f) Staff requirement - There is a limited time up to which railway staff is expected to perform their duties. They have, therefore, to take over and made over their charge at fixed locations. A  bit of additional time is provided for the staff to examine the equipment and documents etc., being taken over.
(g) Unforeseen circumstances - There are a number of circumstances like signal failure, alarm chain pulling, occasional failures for which provision has to be kept. If no provision for such eventualities is kept, it is likely that the trains may run late frequently. This is generally up to the maximum of 3% of the total running time and is called 'traffic recovery time' and is provided short of big junctions, divisional/zonal interchange points. It may, however, be noted that in actual practice on most of the railways very little traffic recovery time is available.


1. Maximum Permissible Speed (MPS) -

This is the speed which a Loco Pilot cannot exceed. This is also called technical speed and is dependent upon the technical condition of the track, signalling and rolling stock in use. It is generally different for different sections and trains. Most of the express trains on Indian Railways have MPS of 100 kmph. In order to increase this speed limit, signalling and track need to be carried out and Commissioner of Railway Safety has to satisfy himself before he permits this limit to be enhanced. Very few super fast trains have MPS higher than 100 kmph. Our fastest train so far was Rajdhani Express between Howrah and New Delhi (130 kmph). But with the introduction of Shatabdi Express between NDLS - JHS, the fastest booked speed is now 140
kmph between NDLS - AGC, and 130 kmph between AGC - JHS.

2. Booked Speed -

This is the speed which determines the normal running time of the trains and on the basis ofwhich time table is prepared. This is generally 10% less than the maximum permissible speed.

3. Average Running Speed -

This is the average speed of the train on run. For calculating this, total time consumed in halts is deducted from the total time taken by a train between originating and termination stations.

4. Commercial Speed / Overall Speed -

This is the average time taken by the train per hour from its start to termination. Long distance passengers are concerned with this. They are not interested how fast a train runs between the stations. What they are concerned about is how fast it can reach its destination.

5. Speed Restriction -

Maximum permissible speed and booked speed relate to the particular section of the railway engine. Actual condition of the track bridges, curves and nature of signalling at certain stations may require the trains to be run at speeds which should be lower than the booked speed of a particular train. For this, special speed restrictions are imposed, which are of two types:
a. Permanent Speed Restrictions - These speed restrictions are the ones which are supposed to be for sufficiently long duration and are mentioned in the Working Time Table. Since copies of the Working Time Table are available with the train crew, no other intimation is required to be given to them on day to day basis. The time which the trains are expected to lose in observing its restrictions is built into the running time and is time tabled accordingly. These restrictions last the currency of a time table and are reviewed at the time of revision in the time table.
b. Temporary Speed Restrictions - A number of speed restrictions may have to be imposed for a short duration either on account of defects in track and related equipment or to facilitate repairs to the track and OHE and signalling installations. Requirement of time for such repairs is assessed well in time before a new time table is introduced and this time is separately provided for in the time table and is called 'Engineering Allowance' (EA). This time is also provided in the time table short of junction stations or at the divisional/zonal interchange points. If there are repair works elsewhere on the section, trains would run late and this would be adjusted before the junction interchange points.

6.Minimum Running Time

This is the time which a train should take between two stations when running at maximum permissible speed. This is calculated taking into consideration the permanent speed restrictions that may be in force from time to time in the concerned sections. This would be different for different trains and the Loco Pilot is in no case permitted to take less than the minimum running time relevant to his train. Guards of the trains and Section Controller keep a watch on this aspect so that in case of over-speeding by the Loco Pilots, they may take steps to check them.

7.Normal Running Time

This time is based on the booked speed of the train and is generally about 10% more than the minimum running time. The Loco Pilot is expected to run faster to the minimum running time when running late and is expected to make up time.

8.Calculation of Running Time

Calculation of running time is based on a number of factors, viz.:

a. Distance between the two stations
b. Hauling power of the locomotive
c. Load of the train
d. Permissible speeds
e. Permanent speed restrictions
f. Gradients and curves
g. Time required for acceleration and deceleration.
This time is calculated with the help of computer by RDSO and is further validated through trials.

9.Authorised Detentions

This is a time for which a train can be detained at a junction station to wait for another train running late in order to facilitate passengers to maintain connections at the junction stations, some trains can be detained for a specific period, after this detention the train can give connection to another nominated train so that undue hardship to the passengers is not caused. These are, however, the outer limits and connecting train cannot be detained, if it is not likely to connect the trains to be connected within the prescribed limit. This is given in the Working Time Table.

Working & Public Time Table:

A Working Time Table is published simultaneously for each division, for the exclusive use of Railway Staff. The difference between Public Time Table and Working Time Table mentioned below:


1. Issue on payment
2. Information is applicable to all the stations in zone.
3. These are of various types:
a) Detailed time Table - Zone wise
b) Abstract Time Table
c) Sheet Time Table
d) Trains at a glance
4. Map on Zonal Railway, Indian Railways is provided.
5. Facilities to passengers like retiring room, Information about tourist spots are mentioned.
6. Timings of daily, non daily passengers, Mail/Exp. trains Arr. And Dep. are mentioned.
7. It contains information about reservations, refunds


1. Issued free of cost to the staff of the division
2. Information/Instructions applicable to only to a particular division.
3. Only one is issued
4. Divisional map is provided.
5. Operational requirements are mentioned.
6. Timings on Arr./ Dep, Run through of all trains running in the division is mentioned.
7. It contains rules and regulations with regard to
a. Marshalling
b. Movement of ODC
c. Location of MRT/ART and their target time etc.,

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