All Communication Failure on Single line

All Communication Failure on Single line (SR 6.02 – 4)

1. In the event of total interruption of communication (TIC) occurring between two stations on a single line section, i.e. when Line Clear cannot be obtained by any one of the following means stated in order of preference viz:
a. Block instruments; Track circuits or Axle counters;
b. Telephones attached to the Block Instruments;
c. Station to station fixed telephones wherever available;
d. Fixed telephone such as Railway auto phones & BSNL / MTNL phones;
e. Control Telephone;
f. VHF sets under special instructions, but not as the sole means of communication on sections where passenger trains run.

The following procedure shall be adopted for train passing.

2. The SM who has a train to dispatch through the affected block section shall open communications by establishing contact with the SM of the block station at the other end by sending an engine or self propelled vehicle or any other vehicle as under in the order of preference viz:

(i) Light engine;
(ii) Train engine;
(iii) Motor trolley / Tower wagon accompanied by a Guard or SM;
(iv) Trolley / Cycle Trolley / Moped Trolley accompanied by a Guard or SM;
(v) Diesel car / Rail motor car / EMU rake after ensuring that all passengers have detrained.

3. The SM on duty shall advise the circumstances and the purpose of the staff being sent with the above engine / vehicle into the affected block section to open the communication. He must also satisfy himself that the staff thoroughly understand the rules of working of trains during TIC on single line, and obtain their signature on the authority in token of acknowledgement.

4. T/B 602 is issued to the Loco Pilot of the vehicle going to open the communication after explaining the situation. It has the following five parts:

a) Authority to proceed without line clear,
b) Authority to pass LSS at ON,
c) Caution order – 15 /10 /walking pace,
d) Line clear enquiry message,
e) Conditional line clear message.

5. Duties of Loco Pilot and Guard:

a) Loco Pilot shall go through the authority and ensures the correctness of the entries,
b) Loco Pilot shall proceed putting on the flasher light,
c) Loco Pilot shall observe the speed restriction in force,
d) Loco Pilot shall sound frequently short whistles,
e) Loco Pilot shall stop at an adequate distance if any vehicle is seen coming from the opposite direction and proceed after consultation with the Loco Pilot of the vehicle regarding the importance of the train, distance covered, gradients, catch siding etc.
f) Loco Pilot shall stop at the FSS and sound continuous long whistle to attract the attention of SM.

6. On hearing the whistle, SM gets the points set and facing points locked and receives the train by taking ‘Off’ the signals and collect T/B 602 and make proper entry in TSR.
7. The following authorities are issued to the Loco Pilot of the returning vehicle –
a) T/G 602 or T/H 602 based on the conditional line clear message of T/B 602,
b) T/369 (3b) to pass the signals at ON,
c) T/409 or T/A 409 to observe the speed restrictions in force,
d) T/F 602 – reply to line clear enquiry message,
e) T/E 602 – if required to ask line clear.
8. While returning, the Loco Pilot of the vehicle proceed at normal speed, and SM will receive the train by taking ‘Off’ signals and obtain T/F 602 and T/E 602.
9. SM issues the following authorities to the waiting train before dispatching –
a) T/G 602 or T/H 602 based on T/F 602.
b) T/369(3b) to pass signals at ON.
c) T/409 or T/A 409 to observe speed restrictions in force.
d) T/F 602 – if T/E 602 is received.
e) T/E 602 – if required to ask line clear.
Note: When the number of trains is same at both stations, SM shall issue T/E 602 and T/F 602 to Loco Pilot / Guard of each train.
10. When more than one train is waiting for line clear, T/E 602 is filled with details of all the trains.
11. If the other SM is in a position to receive all the trains, he shall give separate private number to all the trains and fill the details in T/F 602.
12. Under such circumstances, trains are dispatched at an interval of 30 minutes issuing the following authorities –
a) T/G 602 or T/H 602,
b) T/369(3b),
c) T/409 – speed 25 /10 kmph.
13. On availability of any one of the means of communication, both SMs ensure that the section is clear and exchange private numbers and fill T/I 602.

14. Details of the movement are entered in TSR which are examined by TI and a report will be sent to DRM within seven days.

All Communication Failure on Double line

All Communication Failure on Double line (SR 6.02 –3)

1. In the event of total interruption of communication (TIC) occurring between two stations on a double line section, i.e. when Line Clear cannot be obtained by any one of the following means stated in order of preference viz :

  a. Block instruments; Track circuits or Axle counters;
  b. Telephones attached to the Block Instruments;
  c. Station to station fixed telephones wherever available;
  d. Fixed telephone such as Railway auto phones & BSNL / MTNL phones;
  e. Control Telephone;
 f. VHF sets under special instructions, but not as the sole means of communication on sections where               passenger trains run.

The following procedure shall be adopted for train passing.

2. Train shall be stopped and the Loco Pilot and the Guard of the train shall be advised of the circumstance by the SM on duty.

3. SM shall issue T / C 602 to the Loco Pilot of each train which shall include –

a. Authority to proceed without line clear;
b. Authority to pass signals in ON position;
c. Caution Order – 25 km/h when the view ahead is clear and 10 km/h when the view ahead is not clear.

4. In the event of a Loco Pilot approaching or passing any portion of the line where the view ahead is not clear, a railway employee with hand signals must be sent in advance to guide the further movement of the train. A sharp look out ahead should be kept and the engine whistle freely used.
5. The train shall be piloted, by a railway employee equipped with hand signals and detonators, through a tunnel only after ascertaining that it is clear. Before entering a tunnel, the head lights, side and tail lights shall be lit.
6. Trains shall be allowed to enter the block section after a clear interval of 30 minutes between each other.
7. Guard shall keep a sharp look out in the rear and be prepared to exhibit a hand danger signal to prevent the approach of a train from the rear and to protect if necessary.
8. When a train is stopped in the block section, on account of accident, failure, obstruction or other exceptional cause and the train cannot proceed, it shall be protected by placing three detonators at a distance of 250 – 250 and 10 meters apart from the train on the way out.
9. No train shall be backed. In unavoidable circumstances, it shall be backed only after placing three detonators at a distance of 250 – 250 and 10 meters apart in the rear of the point up to which the train is to be backed.
10. On approaching the station ahead, Loco Pilot shall stop the train outside the first stop signal and sound continuous long whistle.
11. If the signal is not taken ‘Off’ within 10 minutes and if the detention is likely to exceed 10 minutes, train shall be protected in the rear by placing three detonators at a distance of 250 – 250 and 10 meters apart, and Loco Pilot shall send his assistant to the station / cabin to inform the fact that the train is waiting at the signal for its admission into the station.
12. After the train being admitted into the station by taking ‘Off’ the signals, the Loco Pilot shall make over the authority to the SM.
13. Trains must continue to work on this system until anyone of the means of communications is restored by the competent authority.
14. A record of all trains passed over during the period shall be maintained on the TSRs at both the stations concerned.
15. As soon as anyone of the means of communication has been restored, the SMs must send messages under exchange of Private Numbers and Line clear shall not be obtained or given until both the SMs are satisfied that all trains dispatched from their stations have arrived complete at the other stations. SCOR shall be intimated about this.

16. All the records in connection with the working of trains during the course of TIC shall be inspected by the TI of the section, who shall prepare a report on the working of trains and shall forward the same along with his report to the DRM within 7 days of communication.

TSL working on Double line

TSL working on Double line SR 6.02 – 1

1. Whenever an accident to a train or track or other obstruction takes place on a double line, the traffic may temporarily worked under the following systems:

a. By obtaining ‘line clear’ on electric speaking instruments,
b. By the installation of single line block instruments and SLB demarcating the block section in the wrong direction, if the affected line is likely to remain out of use for a substantial period.

2. On receipt of reliable information in writing that one line is clear, SM, in consultation with SCOR and the SM of the station at the other end of the section shall take steps to introduce TSL working.
3. In case of doubt, Track Safe Certificate shall be obtained by the engineering Official not less than the rank of an Inspector.
4. TSL working shall be introduced between the nearest stations provided with cross-over between Up and Down lines.
5. IBS and C’ class stations shall be kept closed and the commentators of the related block instruments shall be locked in  ‘TOL’ position. Caution Indicator shall be hung on the handle of block instruments in case of Daido instruments.
6. SM proposing TSL working shall issue a message, to the SM at the other end of affected section, containing the following information under exchange of Private Numbers.

a. Cause of introduction of TSL working.
b. The line in which the TSL working is proposed.
c. Source of information that the said line is clear.
d. Place of obstruction.
e. Names of intermediate stations if any, which would be out of use.
f. Assurance that the trap points, if any have been spiked or clamped and padlocked.
g. Assurance that if the train is running on the right line, the last stop signal shall be kept in the ON position. In case the train is running on the wrong line, all fixed signals shall be kept in the ON position; and
h. The number and timings of the last train which arrived or left the block station issuing the message.

7. After exchanging of the above information, line clear shall be obtained through the means of communication.

8. Authority:

   a. Right line – T / D 602
   b. Wrong line – T / D 602 and T / 511 / Pilot out memo.

9. Three parts of T / D 602 are as under:

   a. Line clear ticket;
   b. Authority to pass signals in ON position; and
   c. Caution Order in which the following are mentioned –
      1. Line on which the train is going and place of obstruction,
      2. Speed of the first train shall be 25 km/h subject to observance of other speed restrictions in force,
      3. Warning to observe neutral section for the train going on wrong line in electrified section and clamping           / spiking of trap points if any, and
      4. Other speed restrictions in force.

10. Loco Pilot of the first train shall inform all Gatemen and Gang men on the way about the introduction of TSL working specifying the road on which the trains will run.
11. The Loco Pilot of the train proceeding on the wrong line shall switch ON the flasher light and sound frequently short whistles.
12. Second and subsequent trains may run at their booked speed subject to observance of other speed restrictions in force.
13. When a train is stopped between stations on account of accident, failure, obstruction or other exceptional cause and the Loco Pilot finds that it cannot proceed, it shall be protected as per GR 6.03.
14. Trains proceeding on the wrong line shall stop opposite the first stop signal of the right line or at the lass stop signal of the wrong line whichever comes first. SM shall depute a railway servant with a written authority to stop the train on danger hand signal and thereafter pilot the train into the station.
15. Trains proceeding on the right line shall be received by taking ‘Off’ the approach stop signals.
16. Resumption of normal working:
       a. On receipt of a written certificate from a responsible engineering ‘Official that the obstructed track is          free and safe for passage of trains, SM shall issue a message to the other station / stations under                    exchange of Private Number and in consultation with the SCOR, normal working shall be resumed.
      b. Block instruments and all fixed signals including those of IBH which were treated as closed shall be             brought into use immediately.
     c. An entry shall also be made in the TSR of all stations concerned showing the time of suspension of                double line working, introduction of single line working and resumption of normal working.
    d. Loco Pilot of the first train entering the section after resumption of normal working shall inform all                  Gatemen and Gang men on the way about the resumption of normal working.

17. All the records in connection with the TSL working shall be retained at the station and the TI of the section must scrutinize and submit his report to the DRM within 7 days of the resumption of normal working.

Systems of Working

Systems of Working

Systems of Working: GR 7.01

(1) All trains working between stations shall be worked on one of the following systems, namely –

(a) The Absolute Block System,
(b) The Automatic Block System,
(c) The Following Trains System,
(d) The Pilot Guard System,
(e) The Train Staff and Ticket System, or
 (f) The One Train Only System.

(2) Systems of working in force on Central Railway: SR 7.01 – 1

(a) The absolute block system,
(b) The automatic block system, or
(c) The one train only system.

Essentials of the Absolute Block System: GR 8.01

Where trains are worked on the Absolute Block System

(a) no train shall be allowed to leave a block station unless Line Clear has been received from the block station in advance, and
(b) on double lines such Line Clear shall not be given unless the line is clear, not only up to the first stop signal at the block station at which such Line Clear is given, but also for an adequate distance beyond it;
(c) on single lines such Line Clear shall not be given unless the line is clear of trains running in the same direction, not only up to the first stop signal at the block station at which such Line Clear is given, but also for an adequate distance beyond it, and is clear of trains running in the direction towards the block station to which such Line Clear is given.
(d) Unless otherwise directed by approved special instructions, the adequate distance referred to in clauses (b) & (c) of sub-rule (1) shall not be less than –
(a) 400 meters in case of two-aspect lower quadrant signaling or two-aspect colour light signaling, and
(b) 180 meters in case of multiple-aspect or modified lower quadrant signaling.

Essentials of the Lock and Block System: SR 8.01 – 1

(a) It shall not be possible to take ‘‘Off’’ last stop signal to permit a train to leave a block station until ‘Line Clear’ has been received from the block station in advance.
(b) The entry of a train into the block section shall cause the last stop signal to be automatically replaced at ‘On’.
(c) Line Clear shall not be given by the block station in advance until the preceding train has passed over the section clearing track circuit or it’s equivalent and until stop signal / signals in rear of the train has / have been replaced to ‘On’ position.

Essentials of the Automatic Block System on double line: GR 9.01

(1) Where trains on a double line are worked on the Automatic Block System –
(a) the line shall be provided with continuous track circuiting or axle counters,
(b) the line between two adjacent block stations may, when required, be divided into a series of automatic block signalling sections each of which is the portion of the running line between two consecutive stop signals, and the entry into each of which is governed by a stop signal, and
(c) the track circuits or axle counters shall so control the stop signal governing the entry into an automatic block signalling section that –
(i) the signal shall not assume an ‘‘Off’’ aspect unless the line is clear not only up to the next stop signal in advance but also for an adequate distance beyond it, and
(ii) the signal is automatically placed to ‘On’ as soon as it is passed by the train.

(2) Unless otherwise directed by approved special instructions, the adequate distance referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause I of sub-rule (1) shall not be less than 120 meters.

Essentials of the One Train Only System: GR 13.02

Where trains are worked on the one train only system, only one train shall be on the section on which this system is in force, at one and the same time.

Procedure in case of accident or disablement on the one train only system: GR 13.04

(1) (a) If the train becomes disabled and requires assistance or if an accident occurs which renders it impossible for the train to proceed, the train shall be protected in accordance with the provisions of Rule 6.03 in the direction from which assistance, if necessary, is being obtained.
    (b) The Guard of the train shall convey advice of the circumstances under which the train has become disabled and is not able to proceed, to the SM of the station from which assistance can best be obtained, and if it is necessary for such Guard to proceed to such station, shall instruct the Loco Pilot in writing to keep the train stationary until his return, and obtain his written acknowledgement.
 (2) (a) Such SM, if he is not the SM of the base station, shall communicate this information to the SM of the base station. On receipt of such information, the SM of the base station may allow another engine to enter the line.
    (b)The engine so sent shall either be accompanied by the Guard of the disabled train, who shall explain to the Loco Pilot where and under what circumstances he disabled train is situated, or the Loco Pilot of the engine so sent shall be given a written authority, containing such instructions as to where and under what circumstances the disabled train is situated and such other particulars as may be necessary to enter the line unaccompanied by the Guard of the disabled train.
(3) The Guard of the disabled train shall be responsible for the safe and proper working of the line until the disabled train has been moved and any other engine sent to the assistance of the disabled train has been returned to the base station.
(4) If there is no Guard of a disabled train, the Assistant Loco Pilot or Loco Pilot shall perform the duties imposed by this rule on the Guard, provided that the engine is not left unmanned in terms of Rule 4.20.

SR 13.04 – 1 If it is necessary for the Guard to remain with his train, he will send the advice to the nearest station through the Assistant Loco Pilot stating the nature and cause of the breakdown and at once protect the train in accordance with GR 6.03 in the direction from which relief is expected. If assistance has been asked for, he shall not allow the engine or any portion of his train to be moved until such time assistance arrives.



Loco link is an arrangement of locomotive for working a set of trains from one station to other station for Mail/Express/Passenger trains. Loco link gives the requirement of locomotive required to run the given number of trains. Loco link is prepared by HQ office in consultation with COM.

Factors to be considered while preparing a loco link:

1) Availability of the Loco.
2) Trip Inspection:

Mail/Express or Passenger locomotives are required to be given trip inspection as under as per AC traction manual:-
After running of 3000 kms or at completion of a trip whichever is later.

Therefore, loco link has to be prepared in such a way that the trip inspection is done as per the yardstick and no loco runs overdue trip inspection in the link. Loco link should have the provision of the trip inspection at suitable interval.

3) Lie over period at destination station:

When a loco completes its journey after working a train, this loco is sent to yard, trip shed etc. This loco is again attached to the train as per the link. The period for which it remains idle at destination station (i.e. the time period when loco isdetached and again attached to train) is known as lie over period of the locomotive.
given to locomotive. Therefore, lie over period of locomotive is a loco link will depend on the following:-

A) Lay out of yard and location of trip shed :

If the locomotive is to be given trip inspection during the lie over period, the time (T) to be available during the lie over period should be as under:-

T = Time taken for trip inspection (Tt) + Time required for movement of loco from station to trip shed and back (Tm)

Generally, the time required for trip inspection is 2 hours to 2 hour 30 minutes. However, time is also taken to attend the drivers booking regarding loco defects.
On an average, it is seen that one hour time will be required to attend to various types of defects booked by drivers. Therefore, for trip inspection, time to be given is about 3’30” to hours considering the practical working in trip shed. Sometime, when loco arrives in trip shed, staff may be busy in dealing with the problem of other loco. In that case, loco has to wait. Therefore, allotting a time of 4 hours for trip shed in case
of trip inspection to be done is quite reasonable and practical.
Similarly, some time will be taken for movement of electric locomotive from station to trip shed. Again this time will vary from one destination to other.
Generally, trip sheds are located in the yard in such a way that loco can be moved  from station to trip shed within 30” time. However, due to variation in yard lay out and other operating condition trip sheds are to be located far away from station where engine is detached. In such situation, the time taken to move the loco from station to trip shed may be as high as two hours.

B) Whether destination in a terminus :

Moreover, if the destination of the train is CSTM or HWH or Madras etc. where the railway track terminates, the locomotive at such station cannot be immediately detached and sent to trip shed. Therefore, loco has to remain on station platform till the rake is backed to washing siding in the yard after about 45” from the arrival of the train. This aspect should also be taken into account while planning the loco link.
Practical example
Central Railway locomotives are reaching HWH after working the train like 12151 Samrasta Exp. As HWH is a terminus station and also the trip shed is located away from station at Santaragachi S.E. Railway requires a lie over period of 10 to 12 hours for trip inspection for the reason explained in above paras.

4) Consultation with other Railways/Divisions :

While planning the loco link, other Railway or division (where the loco will be detached and attention will be given) should be consulted for requirement of time for lie over period. Similarly, trip inspection schedule should also be planned and place should be nominated in the link.

5) Provision of Schedule Inspection (IA, IB or IC of loco) :

Loco link should include the withdrawal of loco for monthly schedule after it has worked for 35 to 40 days in the link. Withdrawal of the loco at Homing Shed station should be planned in such a way that it suits the homing shed by way of working hours for carrying out the schedule.
In electric loco sheds, normally locos are placed for schedule inspection at about 2 to
3 hours in (0-8) shift of working. This helps the homing shed in carrying out complete testing of locomotives by 8 hours. The staff in (0-8) shift will give complete detail of unscheduled work to be carried out along with schedule work.
This will enable the staff in day shift to carry out the work properly. Therefore, withdrawal of loco to be planned by such trains which reaches homing station at about 0 to 1 hour so that loco reaches the homing shed just in time. Therefore, withdrawal of loco to be planned while considering following points:

i. When to withdraw the loco – By suitable train so that it reached homing shed station at about 0 to 2 hours.
ii. From which train to withdraw the loco - This should also be decided judiciously after studying the working time table. there are some trains where time allowance and running time is sufficient, such trains can make up the loss of time which takes place while changing the engine for withdrawing the same for such inspection. Generally, for changing the engine 10” extra is taken for loco movement and vacuum creation. From this link in fig. (shown Next page) , we find that for running trains between Igatpuri-Nasik, Igatpuri-

Calculation of the requirement of engines:

The loco link gives the bare minimum requirement of engines. Therefore, the actual engine requirement will be as under:-
The requirement of loco = Bare minimum requirement + repair allowance.

The repair allowance for Mail/Express locomotives is 9.2 statistical. Therefore, requirements of locomotive will be :-
Bare minimum requirement as per loco link 0.92


In this subject, we have learned to draw loco link and also factors to be considered for drawing a loco link. More practical should be done to draw loco links from the Railway time table for better understanding.

Some example



Railway Statistics: Essential for planning prioritizing and exceeding activities connected with operation.

The railway statistics are based on four factors -

Duration and

In Railway environment these relate to –

1. Primary Units:

(a) Quantity  - Expressed as tones and number of passengers carried and earnings derived
(b) Distance - Expressed in kilometers.
(c) Duration - Expressed in minutes, hours & days
(d) Service performed - Expressed in terms of trains, vehicles, wagons & Engines.
2. Fundamental Units: Relationship between primary units, expressed in composite terms is called ‘Fundamental Units’. The fundamental units express two primary ideas in their relationship to one another viz.

Passenger kilometers,
Engine hours,
Wagon days etc.

3. Derived Units:

Expresses the relationship that exists between two sets of primary or fundamental units and the results thus arrived is termed ‘Derived Units.’ The process by which this relationship is ascertained is as illustrated in the following examples.

(a) Passenger earning (Primary) / Passenger carried (Primary) = Earning per passenger

(b) Passenger earning (Primary) / Passenger kilometers (fundamental) = Earning per passenger kilometer.

(c) Passenger kilometer (fundamental)/ Number of passenger (Primary) = Average distance traveled by a passenger also called lead of passenger traffic.

(d) Wagon kilometers (fundamental)/ wagon days (fundamental) = Wagon kilometers per wagon day.

These ‘Derived Units’ highlight special features of transportation output and are useful in evolving suitable management strategies.

Classification of Railway Statistics:

The principal heads under which the railway statistics are generally grouped are indicated below:

Economic and financial statistic:

Under this head are to be included detailed statistics relating to the advance statement of gross earning and traffic handled i.e. the number of passenger booked and tonnage lifted and wagons loaded for current information and the statistic of revenue and expenditure as booked in monthly and yearly accounts.

Operating statistics:

Common terms used in operating statistics:

1. Route Kilometer:  Distance of each gauge owned by a Railway including its worked lines, treated as a single line kms of double, triple etc. Tracks crossings at stations and sidings as also the track from the centre of terminal station to the end of the main line buffer stop are to be excluded. If any section of the line is worked entirely by another Railway or by electric power, or is opened for goods traffic, but not for passenger traffic or vice versa the kilometerage of that section is included.
2. Running track kilometer: In addition to the route kilometerage the extra distance of multiple tracks, i.e. double, triple etc tracks shall be treated as two or three or more tracks, but shall exclude the tracks in sidings, yard and crossings at stations.
3. Track Kilometer: Distance of each gauge owned by a Railway, including its worked lines treated as a single line and extra distance due to double, triple etc. tracks, as also the length of sidings, crossings at stations etc.
4. Mean route kilometer: The length of the Railway calculated according to the definition of route kilometerage allowing for changes in the kilometerage during the period covered. Thus, the mean kilometerage worked during the year, which has had an addition / closing during the year will be as follows:
Route kilometerage at commencement of a year plus / minus number of days the new section / section closed was in use during the year multiplied by the length of the new section / section closed divided by the number of days in the year.
5. Equated track kilometerage: The kilometerage of track equated to a standard unit by giving weightage for factors of traffic density, gradient, formation of soil, curvature, rainfall etc. This is worked out by the following formula:

                                           C = L x U (1 + A + B + C)

Where C = Equated track kilometers
L = Running track kilometers
U = Traffic Density
A = Soil factor
B = Curvature
C = Rainfall factor

The figures of equated track kilometers are worked out section-wise and gauge-wise. This formation is utilized by the engineering department for the employment of gangman for the maintenance of track. The number of men required depended mainly on the number of trains run over the section. More wear & tear of the track; more will be the number of men required for maintenance.

Operating statistics are broadly being divided into:

(i) Traffic (ii) Power (iii) Rolling Stock

(i) The traffic statistics include statistics of wagons loaded, wagon mobility, wagon usage, train loads, train mobility, productive and unproductive services, wagon detention, marshalling yard, terminal goods station and punctuality.
(ii) The power statistics include engine usage, fuel and energy consumption, and engine failure statistics etc.
(iii) Rolling stock holding & availability, repairs maintenance percentage 

Commercial statistics: Coaching and freight revenue and volumes and earnings by class of passengers, for different commodities, claims paid for compensation of goods and parcels lost or damaged Rolling stock and workshop repair statistics:

Under this head are grouped statistics dealing with POH of coaches, wagons, locomotives and other information relating to workshop activity.

Administrative Statistics:

These statistics relating the staff matters, numbers, by categories and classes of staff.

Other Statistics

Number of stations by
Class, halt stations,
Standard of interlocking
Medical statistics related to sickness of staff etc.
Engineering statistics give details of track and bridges requiring attention – ultra sonic tests done or overdue, track renewals, distress bridges etc.

Compilation of Railway Statistics:

1. Compilation of statistics of Indian Railways falls broadly under two categories, namely (i) the statistics required to be complied by the railways for submission to the Railway Board in order to keep the Board generally informed about the different activities of the Indian Railway and (ii) further detailed Railway statistics which individual railway may undertake for their own respective domestic requirements.

2. The statistical compilation work on the Zonal Railways is in the charge of a Statistical Officer working under Finance deptt. The format and the methods of compilation of the monthly Statistical statements and the Annual Statistics required to be submitted to the Board are detailed in the Manual Statistical instructions, Volumes I and II respectively.

Operating Statistics:

1. Operating Statistics for the various Indian Railways are issued in the form of various pamphlets published periodically by the Railway Board. Detailed Statistics relating to each division and gauge are contained in various parts of the ‘Domestic’ statistics issued quarterly (Parts I, II & II-B & C)

2. Some of the important statistics include.

Operating ratio: The ratio of workings expense (excluding suspense but including appropriation to Depreciation Reserve Fund and Pension Fund) to Gross Earnings. (Expenditure incurred in connection with Administration, Operation, Maintenance and repairs of line open for traffic)

A – Passenger Train performance.


Punctuality is the main criterion for judging passenger train performance, some of the statistics compiled separately for ‘Mail and Express trains’, ‘Other Passenger Trains’, and ‘Mixed’ trains are:

RT = Trains arriving Right Time
NLT = Trains not loosing time

Vehicle kilometers per Vehicles Day:

This figure indicates by the vehicle days which are the product of average number of coaching vehicles on line/in use and number of days in the period under reference.

This figure indicates the extent to which coaching vehicles are kept ‘on the move’. The main factors affecting its value are:

(a) The average speed of trains
(b) The average length of train run (average load)
(c) The idle periods provided for in rake links.

3. Since in the short run, train composition is not susceptible to change, it is only by increasing the speeds of trains and tightening up rake links that an improved performance can be achieved.

4. This result is calculated by dividing the coaching vehicles kilometers by the vehicles days which is the product of average number of coaching vehicles on line and the number of days in the period under reference.

Average Speeds:

This figure represents the average time tabled speeds of passenger trains. The higher this figure, the better the service to the passengers. 

Shunting kilometers per 100 Train Kilometers (Passenger including proportion of mixed):

1. This figure indicates the amount of unproductive service that has to be performed per 100 train kilometers (Passenger including proportion of mixed). Since the amount of shunting to be done on a passenger train depends upon various local factors, the figure will vary from Division to Division and from Railway to Railway, traffic conditions remaining constant, is indicative of wasteful shunting.

2. The figure is arrived at by multiplying by 100 the quotient of shunting kilometers divided by train kilometers (passenger including proportion of mixed). It can be depicted by formula given below:-

B- Wagon Usage

Average Starting Wagon Load:

1. This figure is compiled separately for coal and coke, heavy merchandise and light merchandise, thus affording an indication of the extent to which wagon space is utilized by stations from which traffic originates. It is extremely important that wagons be given as full a load as possible because this means economy, in wagon usage and hence engine power and less strain on line and yard capacity. Even a slight improvement in the starting wagon load can mean a tremendous saving to the Railway.

2. The result is calculated by dividing the number of tones loaded by the number of wagons loaded (in terms of four wheelers), CR and TR vans as also wagons used for live stock and departmental purposes, however, are excluded.

Wagon Kilometers per Wagon Day:

1. This figure is a measure of wagon mobility and indicates the average number of kilometers moved by a wagon, on the average, per day, both loaded and empty journeys been included. Delays in marshalling yards, delays at stations when loading or unloading, delays in clearance from roadside stations, decrease in average speed of goods trains, increase in the number of wagons awaiting repairs, and shorter loads of trains are some of the factors normally responsible for poor mobility.

2. This result is obtained by dividing wagon kilometers by wagon days which is the product of daily average number of wagons on line and number of days in period.

Net Tonne Kilometers per Wagon Day:

1. This unit is a measure of the revenue earning work done by the wagons and reflects both mobility and loading. A decrease in this figure may be due interalia to any of the causes which effect the figure of wagon kilometers per wagon day. The proportion of loaded to total wagon kilometerage, the average loaded wagon and the relative amount of heavy and light merchandise carried, are some of the other factors which may effect this figure.

2. The numerator in this case is the net tonne kilometers (excluding departmental) and the denominator wagon days.

Wagon Turn Round:
This future expresses the ratio between the total number of serviceable wagons on a Railway and the number of wagons required daily for effective use on the railway for its outward, inward and transshipment traffic. Stated in different way, wagon turn round represents the average period of time in which a particular wagon completes its average loaded trip and after which it again becomes available for loading.

Average Wagon Load during the Run:

1. This unit is a good index of wagon utilization as it refers to the average load of all loaded wagons carried. It suffers from the draw back that it does not directly reflect the performance of the division, gauge or railway to which it applies, as only a proportion of the loaded wagons carried is loaded locally and the balance
consists of both received traffic and cross traffic.

2. For obtaining this figure net tonne kilometers are divided by loaded wagon kilometers, (the figure relating to departmental trains are excluded).

Goods Trains Performance:

Average Speed of Goods Trains:

1. This result is calculated separately for ‘through goods trains’ and all goods trains and is arrived at by dividing the total train kilometers by total train engine hours of the concerned service. Detentions to goods trains at roadside stations enter into the calculations and have therefore the effect of bringing down average

2. Some of the factors on which the average speed of goods trains depends are: 
(a) The proportion of the density of trains to the sectional capacity. The nearer a section is worked to its sectional capacity, the proper the speeds obtained.
(b) Hauling power of the engines used, quality of coal and quality and adequacy of water supply standard of maintenance of engines and time taken by loco pilots for loco requirements.
(c) Loads of trains.
(d) Condition of rolling stock, particularly the brake power available.
(e) Standards and maintenance of signalling and interlocking.
(f) Facilities at watering stations, facilities at roadside stations to complete shunting in the minimum time and shorter block sections which will increase the sectional capacity.
(g) Engineering restrictions – permanent and temporary gradients and curves.

Average Net Train Loads (in tones):

This figure refers to the average freight load carried in tones, i.e., to that portion ofload which earns revenue for the railway.

Average Gross Train Loads (in tonnes): This figure represents the average overall load of goods trains i.e. the freight load plus the weight of the rolling stock.

The principal factors affecting this figure are:
1. The tractive capacity of engine on goods train services.
2. The gradients on various sections of the line.
3. The nature of goods carried.

2. However, for the same division or / railway, the pattern of traffic remaining the same, rise in this figure is indicative of wasteful shunting.

Net Tonne kilometers per Engine Hour:

The figure of net tonne kilometers per Engine hour is a very useful index of the
efficiency of freight working on a division. Net tonne kilometers indicate the
amount of revenue earning work done while engine hour measure the cost of if
doing it.

A decrease in net tonne kilometers per engine hour may be due to factors such as:

1. Shunting engine hours not using cut down in proportion to the decrease in traffic offering.
2. Increase in departmental, assistance required, assisting hot required and light engine running.
3. Decreasing in the average train and or the average speed of goods train.
4. Decrease in the average starting wagon load or in the wagon loads of wagons received from other divisions.
5. Increase in the proportion of unbalanced traffic.
6. The type of traffic carried heavy or light.

Average Detention per Wagon:

1. All wagons
2. Through loaded wagons.

Detention suffered by stock in a yard depends, inter alia, on the layout of the yard and on the number of trains per day that can be dispatched in various directions. Target figures have bee laid down for each yard for detentions to all wagons and through loaded wagons. Such targets take into consideration the condition of work and facilities available in the yard concerned. Detentions in excess of this figure indicate inefficient yard work. Lesser detentions mean lesser cost of handling wagons in yards.

Number of Wagons Dealt with per Shunting Engine Hour:

The number of wagons that a given yard can deal with per shunting hour depends, inter alia, on its layout. Accordingly a target figure has been prescribed for each yard to enable the efficiency of yard work to be gauged. As shunting involves cost, the higher this result, greater the efficiency of the yard.

Locomotive Performance

Engine Kilometers per Day per Engine in Use:

This figure is compiled separately for passenger, mixed and goods train services as well as for all services refers to ‘engines in use’. This is affected by such factors as:
1. The average run of trains.
2. The average speed of trains.
3. The engine links.
4. The location of engine shed with respects to the stations which they serve.

Engine Kilometres per Day per Engine on Line:

This figure is also compiled by services and for all services put together. The proportion that this figure bears to the corresponding figure of ‘engine kilometers per engine day per engine in use’ indicates the proportion of available engines ‘on line’ that were put to effective use during the period in question.

Quantity of Fuel Consumed per Engine Kilometers by Services:

This figure indicates the fuel consumption in relation to Engine Kilometers only
and does not replace the tonnes hauled.

Quantity of Fuel Consumed per 1000 Gross Tonne Kilometres by Services:

This figure indicates the fuel consumption in relation to the work done and is, therefore, a better index of fuel consumption than the quantity of fuel consumed per engine kilometer figure. The main factor that influences this result is the gross load of the train. It is derived by the formula given below:

Quantity of Fuel Consumed x 1000 Gross Tonne kms.
Traction Energy consumption per engine km and per 1000 gross tonne kms is worked out exactly in the same way, replacing 1000 litres of diesel by kwhs.


Operating Ratio is the ratio of the total working expenses excluding suspense but including appropriations to DRF and Pension fund, bear to its gross earnings. In other words, it represents the percentage of Working Expenses to Total Earnings.

Operating Ratio has been regarded as one of the most important financial statistics and has frequently been used as an index of the operating efficiency of a Railway. This ratio continues to be worked out from year to year and is reflected in the accounting system. In comparing the ratio of one year with another of the same
Railways, great care must be taken to see that the terms “Working expenses” and “Gross earnings” are clearly defined and that the figures have been compiled on the same basis. The object of a Railway Administration is to keep this ratio as low as possible consistent with efficient working and good maintenance; it will tend to fall with efficient working, increase of traffic and fall in expenditure.

Steps to reduce the working expenses:

1. Downsize the staff (closure of unproductive units, multi skilled labor,computerization etc.)
2. Achieving efficiency in fuel usage (reducing detention to trains, avoiding wastage of fuel, efficiency in train running, detention to a Diesel train for 1 hour incurs nearly Rs. 3000 extra expenditure)
3. Privatization
4. Leasing out the sidings to Private operators.
5. Introduction of ‘Wagon Investment Scheme’
6. Phasing out Vacuum Braked rolling stock.
7. Reducing the incidents of claims.
8. Setting up ‘Power Station’ for Railways in coordination with NTPC.

Steps to Increase the Earnings in Railways:

I. Freight:

1. Keep the targets for increased freight movement and achieve it.
2. Vigorous marketing strategy
3. Multi Modal Transport
4. Recapture the lost piecemeal traffic
5. Decentralization of powers
6. Incentive offers to the loaders.

II. Coaching:

1. Good customer care
2. Run coaching trains with increased capacity
3. Run special trains like summer specials, pilgrimage specials, Mela specials etc.
4. Palace on wheels, village on wheels improved tourism activities.
5. Introduce EMU, DMU rakes for medium distance travel.
6. MMTS, Metro Rail, etc., to cater to the needs of suburban dwellers.
7. Full computerization
8. E-Ticketing and full-fledged operation of IRCTCL
9. Leasing out SLRs
10. Reducing the incidents of accident


Leasing out the railway land, Technology transfer through RITES, IRCON to other countries like Malaysia, Bangladesh, Mexico etc., Leasing out Telecom lines through Rail-tel Corporation. Consultancy and maintenance service for procurement/maintenance in ‘own your wagon scheme’ Supply of quality food and
water (Rail Neer) through IRCTCL. Display of private advertisements in Railway area, coaches, etc.


This is the Ratio which the Volume of passenger traffic bears to the carrying capacity of the train or Carriages of a particular class and is expressed as-

It is an Index which gives the incidence of overcrowding in trains:

a) It gives the trend of passenger traffic class wise and the extent of overcrowding over the different sections of the line or the line as a whole.
b) It helps the commercial and operating officers to regulate the passenger train service by providing required stock, particularly in these days when the public demands more facilities whereas the Railway has to utilize its stock efficiently and economically. The Commercial Department arranges special trains on fairs and
c) This information when obtained section wise helps to increase or decrease the load of the train at articular stations by attaching/detaching passenger carriages.

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