Section Capacity and Throughput

Section Capacity and Throughput

Section capacity:-

Definition: Line capacity is also known as section capacity. Section capacity is defined as the “Number of train which can be run on the section in 24 hours”. This could be expressed in three different ways:

a. Maximum line capacity
b. Practical line capacity
c. Economic line capacity

a. Maximum line capacity: this is represented by the maximum number of trains that can be entered in the master chart so that it is impossible to introduce even a single more train on the section concerned.

b. Practical line capacity: the practical line capacity is represented by the practical number of trains per day which is obtained from the above mentioned maximum line capacity making allowance for such factors as time required for maintenance of permanent way, time margin for scheduling and other operational irregularities. In actual practice the train scheduling is based upon this capacity. When we speak of line capacity in general, we mean practical line capacity also known as effective line capacity.

c. Economic line capacity: When line capacity is under utilized, increase in train services follow the pattern of law of increasing returns due to more intensive utilization of fixed assets. However, as the number of trains to be operated on a section grows larger and larger and the section starts getting saturated, it becomes more and more difficult to increase the train services without increasing the time loss in train operation.

As a result, the utilization efficiency of the rolling stock and the train crew decreases and maintenance cost of the track increases. This leads to gradual increase of the transportation cost per train kilometer. The optimum number of trains which can be run on the section economically is the economic line capacity.

Calculation of section capacity: Though various formulae are there, CR follows the Scott’s formula which is as under:

Where C = Line capacity
T = Running time of the slowest train over critical block section
t = Time for block operation
e = Efficiency factor

Measures with incurring expenditure:

1. To reduce the block section
2. To improve the speed of trains
3. To provide the automatic signals
4. To provide extra corridor
5. Increase use of modern signaling system
6. Provision of Train describer
7. CTC on double line
8. Improving speed of goods train
9. Use of EMU and DMU for stopping train
10. Provision of AWS
11. Provision of ACD
12. Provision of PI / RRI / Electronic interlocking / SSI
13. By increasing CSL / CSR of all the running lines at all stations and yards.

Measures without incurring expenditure

1. Proper planning
2. Proper controlling
3. Proper efficiency
4. Time tabling
5. Proper maintenance of instruments
6. To reduce the time in block operation
7. To reduce the crossing and precedence
8. By implementing Management information system
9. By introducing new software through development of IT
10. By using new techniques in the infrastructure
11. By not using separate traction for different sections
12. To run heavy-haul goods trains

Order of priority for increasing line capacity works:

As section capacity works involve huge investments and long gestation periods, planning for such works has to be done with meticulous care to avoid traffic bottlenecks on one hand and uncalled for expenditure on the other hand. So it is necessary to follow the sequence below for considering increase in section capacity

(a) Organizational and operating measures to ensure optimum utilization of the existing operating assets as follows:
i. Time table improvements.
ii. Reducing disparity in inter-sectional running times.
iii. Review of sectional running times.
iv. Improving efficiency of staff.
v. Efficient operation of yards, station and terminals.
vi. Improved maintenance of equipment.
vii. Monitoring of trains by Officers and Inspectors.

(b) Technical measures:
i. Signaling and Interlocking improvements.
ii. Motive power improvements
iii. Civil Engineering improvements will include following:
(a) Opening additional crossing stations.
(b) Strengthening the permanent way and bridges.
(c) Improvements in alignment, eliminating surface road crossing, removing speed restrictions, providing 1 in 16 turnouts to permit higher speeds on loop lines.
(d) Easing of gradients.
(e) Patch doubling (Doubling of a section is not undertaken in one stage but in phases, the Work being called phase doubling or patch doubling)
(f) Doubling / Triple line / Quadruple line.


The Throughput of a section is the total quantum of Traffic which can be transported over the section in a period of 24 hours.

The traffic moved includes Passenger Traffic and Freight also. The Passenger Throughput is calculated basing on the number of passengers traveled and the distance they traveled. Passenger Throughput is calculated in terms of Passenger Kilometer (PKM)

Passenger Throughput = No. of Passengers Traveled X Distance they traveled in Kms

The Goods Throughput may be expressed in terms of:
(a) Number of wagons moved or
(b) Gross Tonne Kilometers or
(c) Net Tonne Kilometers carried over a section.
Generally, ‘Throughput’ in Railways refers to Goods Throughput for day to day Operation & is expressed in terms of number of wagons. But for Commercial Transactions it is expressed in terms of ‘Net Tonne Kilometers’. Because NTKM indicates the ultimate productive work done by Railways, a keen observation and effort required to improve NTKM.

Advantages of higher throughput:
(1) Wagon Utilisation Increases
(2) Increase in Railways Revenue.
(3) Yard / Sectional Congestions Eased.
(4) Reliability Increases.
(5) Customer is satisfied and repose confidence on Railways.
(6) Cost of Transport of Freight Reduces.
(7) Interchange commitments with adjoining railways fulfilled
Steps to improve throughput:
(A) Running more number of Trains:
a) Utilise the Section Capacity fully by running trains with CC loads
b) Discourage Light Engine Movements by ensuring that every engine carries sufficient Load.
c) Adopt vigorous marketing strategies
d) Timely ordering of trains.
e) Keeping targets periodically and monitoring.
f) Offer of incentives to efficient staff (Running Crack Specials, Special Trains)
g) Switching over traction from diesel to AC.
h) To utilize more HP locos to run trains with high speed.
(B) Increasing load per Train:
a) Increasing loop capacities.
b) Provision of High Capacity Wagons.
c) Improvement in Track.
d) Multiple Loco Operation or Providing more powerful locomotives.
e) High capacity bearing track shall be used
f) To reduce tare-weight
g) Using technology
h) Platform low level bogie containers

In order to improve the throughput, apart from measures taken for augmentation of line capacity, trailing load has to be increased to improve throughput by

a)   Inducting High Capacity Diesel and Electrical Locomotives and Multiple Operations of Locomotives.
b) Improved Rolling Stock with CBC coupling and draw bar capacity of 80 tones or more.
c) Improved roller bearing on Rolling stock
d) Increasing carrying capacity of rolling stock without much increase in length or tare weight.
e) Improved Braking System (Air Brake and Disc Brake System) to maintain desirable ‘Braking Distance’.
f) Increasing Permissible Axle Load and permissible moving dimensions by Civil Engineering Works.
g) Increasing Loop Capacity and Strengthening the Loop Lines.
h) Improved system of Communication between Engine crew, Train Staff, Station Master and Controller.
i) Adequate Terminal Capacity and facility to deal with Heavy Haul Operations.
j) Re-scheduling and Curtailing running of slow stopping passenger trains on heavy haul routes or on dedicated tracks.
k) Integrated ‘Mega Blocks’ to prevent frequent departmental maintenance block.
l) Up gradation and modernization of techniques and methods of attending to trouble shooting and break downs.
m) Up gradation in the Skill and Knowledge of ‘Train Running’ and ‘Train Passing’ staff.



1) No empty Oil Tank/BCX/BOX wagon will be permitted to move under any circumstances with a broken spring or broken springs with a clamp and shall be detached at the point of detection or the broken spring will be replaced by a good one.
2) No loaded Oil Tank/BCX &BOX wagons with a broken or clamped broken spring shall be permitted on train from the originating yard nor shall such wagon be permitted through yards specifically nominated for spring changing.
3) Maximum number of broken springs that can be clamped on a loaded Oil Tank/ BOX/BCX wagon will be restricted to one. In case of more than one spring breakage on loaded /Oil Tank/BOX/BCX & Tank wagon the same shall be detached at the point of detection. In case of detection in mid section, the spring shall also be clamped and the train will be permitted to move at cautious speed till the section is cleared.
4) Maximum speed at which a loaded Oil Tank wagons/BOX/BCX wagon with one clamped broken spring is permitted to run is 40 Kmph.
5) After clamping the broken spring of the loaded BOX/BCX/Tank wagons, the Guard of the train will be required to inform the ASM of the station in writing about the clamped broken spring giving details of the individual wagon No./nos. of the wagon/ wagons having clamped broken springs and also the position of such wagons from the locomotive and the brake van.
6) The Guard will obtain the signature of the ASM and the driver on the original copy of the memo and shall retain it in his possession.
7) The ASM on receipt of the said memo shall in turn inform the section controller giving details of the train no. and name, wagon no. with clamped broken spring and the position of these wagon/wagons from the loco and the brake van as given in the memo served to him by Guard. The ASM shall be required to make an entry to this effect in the station diary recording the name of the section controller to whom this information has been given and also the time at which this information was transmitted.
8) If due to any reason, the Guard and Driver were unable to clamp a broken spring in mid section, they will be required to work the train at walking speed up to the next station where the guard will issue a memo to the Station Master to either have the broken spring clamped or if he is unable to clamp then he should have the wagon detached. Under all circumstances, before resuming the journey from that station, the guard and the driver will both check whether the broken spring is clamped or the wagon detached. The Guard will also ensure that necessary advice about the broken spring has been conveyed to the Yard Master of the nominated yard ahead by the Station Master.
9) Yards on various divisions of C.Rly which are nominated for spring changing work are as under:-
Bhusawal Division : MMR, BSL, KNW
Nagpur Division : WR, AJNI, BPQ
Mumbai Division : IGP, LNL
Solapur Division : WD, SUR, DD

Pune Division : GIT





Mumbai Division : Kalyan/KYN- Premium Examination Point
Thal/TVSG - Premium Examination Point
Trombay/TMBY- Only Tank Wagon Examination point
Jasai/JSLE – CC Rake Re-validation point
JNPT- CC Rake Re-validation point
Igatpuri/IGP and Lonavala/LNL- are for Brake Power up-gradation points for the trains descending Ghat section
Bhusaval Division : Bhusaval/BSL- CC and Premium Examination Point.
Nagpur Division : Ajni/AQ- Premium Examination Point (CC Examination Point for BLCA + BLCB
Amla/AMF- Premium Examination Point and for Brake Power upgrading points for
the trains descending ghat section.
Solapur Division : Daund/DD – Premium Examination Point.
Wadi/WD- Premium Examination Point (CC Examination Point for BCC rakes)
Pune Division : Loni/LNE- Only Tank Wagon Examination Point

Miraj/MRJ- Only Tank Wagon Examination Point




1. Rake integrity is not disturbed by more than 10 FWUs or Four 8- Wheeled wagons. Only intensively examined wagons duly certified by train examining staff are attached.
2. All CBCs and air hoses are properly coupled and locked.
3. All the angle cocks are in open condition.
4. The rearmost angle cock of LV is in closed position.
5. Empty load handle is properly placed as per the empty or loaded condition of the wagons.
6. There is no loose fittings/hanging parts like push rod, pull rod, brake beam, safety brackets, brake blocks, CBC operating, handle etc., which may endanger the safe running of train.
7. Hand brake of all the wagons is in released condition i.e., in OFF position.
8. Doors of wagons are closed and locked/secured.
9. Correct position of Twist lock.
10. Any other abnormality noticed and action taken.
11. Guard & Loco Pilot shall prepare a memo jointly on a plain sheet in triplicate indicating the brake power and deficiency, if any, and shall append their signatures and both of them shall retain a copy of the same. Guard should obtain SM/YM endorsement on two copies of joint memo and hand over third copy to SM/YM record. SM/YM will inform the Section Controller after making the endorsement on the joint memo and obtain the clearance for the train to move (GR 4.31).
12. Continuity of the brake pipe pressure is confirmed through VHF/Whistle code i.e., perform the continuity test before starting the train.

B) Post Loading/Post Tippling examination of Freight Trains:

Post loading/Post tippling examination to be carried out either by TXR staff or by Guard and Loco Pilot in case of non provision of TXR staff.

Items to be checked by Guard and Loco Pilot:

1. All the CBCs and Air hoses are properly coupled and locked.
2. All the angle cocks are in open condition.
3. The rearmost angle cock of LV is in closed position.
4. Empty load handle is properly placed as per the empty or loaded condition of the wagons.
5. There is no loose fitting/hanging parts like push rod, pull rod, brake beam, safety brackets, brake blocks, CBC operating handle, etc., which may endanger the safe running of train.
6. Hand brake of all the wagons is in released condition i.e. in OFF position.
7. Doors of wagons are closed and locked/secured.
8. Check continuity of BP pressure/Vacuum before starting a train (to perform continuity test).

Proforma for Joint Check by the Loco Pilot and Guard –

1. Date :
2. Train No. :
3. Loco No. & EOL :
4. Load :
5. From :
6. To :
7. BPC issued by :
8. Date of Issue :
9. BPC No. :
10. Loaded at/Tippled at :
___________________                                                              _________________
Signature of Loco Pilot                                                                Signature of Guard
Loco Pilot’s Name:---------------                                           Guard’s Name:--------------------
 (This memo should be prepared in 03 copies, Loco Pilot and Guard should retain one copy each and the third copy should be handed over to SM/YM).
References - Rly. Bd’s letter nos. 1. 2005/M(N) 951/13 Pt. dtd. 07.4.2006

2. 98/M(N)/951/12 Pt. dtd. 17.05.2007                            



A) Setting of Empty/Load Device in Wagons-

The Empty/Load device in wagons if not set in correct position will cause brake binding and flat tyre.
1. To avoid cases of flat tyre /poor brake power, it should be ensured at the time of loading/unloading that Empty/Load Box lever should be put in correct position by Operating/Commercial staff i.e. On Empty Position - When wagon is empty or slightly loaded. On Loaded Position- When wagon is loaded.

2. This should be super checked by Guard at the time of starting train from originating point, and by TXR at the time of train examination.

3. Before movement of loads from loading/unloading terminals, it should be ensured by the Operating staff that, hand brakes are released.

4. While picking up load from Road side stations, the train crew should ensure release of hand brakes.

B) Rolling out/Rolling in Examination of Passenger carrying Trains-

To detect unusual, especially brake binding/flat tyre, the C&W department has started rolling out and rolling in examination of passenger carrying trains at nominated points. The rolling out/rolling in Gangs deployed in Divisions are as under –
Mumbai Division - CSTM, DR, LTT, IGP
Bhusawal Division - BSL
Nagpur Division - NGP, BPQ
Pune Division - PA, MRJ, KOP
Sholapur Division - DD, SUR
·         Guards of all trains should look back frequently at the above stations to see that, no danger hand signal is exhibited by Station staff/TXR staff deployed for rolling out examination and whenever any danger signal is shown the train should be brought to a stop immediately by using VHF communication available with the Driver and Guard by using the brakes available in SLR.
·         The staff involved in shunting of coaches attached/detached enroute on Passenger carrying trains should ensure complete releasing of coaches before starting shunting in order to avoid any possibility of developing flat tyre on the coaches. Special attention should be paid at the stations, where regular attaching/detaching of sectional coaches is taking place.
·         Shunting staff to ensure complete release of coaches/wagons after shunting, to  avoid brake binding/flat tyre.


Flat tyre may cause extensive damage to track by causing rail fractures and weld joint failures, resulting into serious accidents. To avoid rail fractures/welded joints failures caused by flat tyres, the staff should be counseled to take necessary precautions as under-


As per Railway Board’s guidelines, the permissible flat on wheel tread is limited to 60 mm for Goods stock and 50 mm for the Coaching stock/Locomotives. All C&W Train Examination staff should be counseled to adhere to the provision of para 4.22 “Tyre Defects” of Part –IV IRCA Conference Rules for Coaching stock and Para 4.18 of Part-III of IRCA Conference Rules, for Freight Stock. The TXR staff should be counseled not to allow any wagon/coach having length of flatness more than permitted as above under any circumstances. Such wagons/coaches should be detached immediately after being marked sick. The C&W Train Examination staff in C&W depots/sick lines must check the flatness of wheel tread with the help of Tyre Defect Gauge. The flatness of the wheel tread should invariably be checked during intensive examination.


On detection of flat tyre, and after the locomotive/rolling stock involved has been checked by loco shed staff/C&W staff, they should arrange replacement of wheel at site in case of wagon/coach and in case of locomotive, the same should be worked to nearest loco shed having pit wheel/ lathe for attention and a speed restriction of 20 kmph should be observed till the loco is cleared to the concerned loco shed.


The train crew and shunting staff should be trained to release brakes whenever DV isolating cock is operated by them. The empty/load box device should be kept in the empty/loaded position depending upon empty/loaded condition of the stock to avoid skidding of wheels, resulting into flatness of tyre during the run. The driver and guard should also be vigilant in detection of hammering blows /sounds while on run and on detection of the same should observe a speed restriction of 20 kmph to clear the section upto next station where they should stop the train and advise control office regarding the flat tyre and ask for C&W TXR/Loco shed staff to attend.


The station staff should also be counseled to detect the hammering sound if heard on a passing train. They must without fail intimate the approximate position of the wagon/coach to the next station and also to Section Controller to stop the train and get it examined for detecting the locomotive/rolling stock with skidded wheels having flatness of the wheel tread. The train should be inspected by Driver, Guard and ASM and work with restricted speed of 20 kmph if possible, upto the next TXR/Loco examination station. All TIs and Safety Counsellors should counsel SM/ASM, Cabinmen, and Switchmen to keep vigilance check on the hammering sound to detect the flat tyre on a passing train and stop the same before it causes extensive damages.


The Section Controller should take the advise of flat tyre reported by stations seriously and should not allow running of the train for onward journey without ensuring proper examination by C&W/Loco staff. On advice the train should be stopped at the next station and should not be allowed to cause avoidable damage to track.


The Engineering staff and Supervisors at work sites or while doing trolley or foot inspection should also be counseled to be vigilant towards detection of flat tyre on the passing trains. In case of any such detect noticed on any passing train, the approximate position of the culprit wagon/coach should be immediately advised to the next station through emergency control phone or from the nearest level crossing gate. Similarly, the gatemen should also be counseled to be alert and vigilant in detection of hammering sound on any of the passing train and in case of such detection the gatemen should advise the Station Master to stop the train. Gatemen should also show red flag/danger signal to the crew of the train so that, the train be stopped before causing extensive damage.


Engineering Control should organize a special check upto 50 kms in the rear from point of detection of flat tyre to ensure the safety of track subsequent to passage of train having flat tyre.


(Ref – Safety Circular No. 25/2000 dated 28.11.2000 jointly signed by –CME, CE, CEE, COM & CSO)-
The brake binding and subsequently flat tyre resulting in safety hazard on account of Rail Fracture/Weld failure/Roller bearing failure etc.

1.     Detection of Brake Binding/Flat Tyres on Trains-

Train crew/Station staff/Gatemen will be vigilant to detect any abnormality such as brake binding, unusal sound, smoke emission etc. If any such abnormality is noticed, the above staff shall take immediate steps to stop the affected train.

2. In case of brake binding on a train enroute, the Driver and Guard must take the prescribed remedial action or releasing the brakes and isolate the brakes of the affected coach/wagon, which should be got examined at the next train examination point. This will ensure that, brake binding will not result in flat tyre.

3. TXR staff available for Rolling In/Rolling Out examination shall detect brake binding/flat tyre in coaches and initiate action.

4. It is imperative that, all cases of coach detachment on the Division be duly enquired into by Officers concerned with Loco Operation, C & W and Safety and remedial measures taken to prevent enroute detachments.

5. Action to be taken by Train Crew after detection of Brake Binding/Flat Tyrei)
i. For air brake coaching stock – Assistant Driver and Guard will find out location of brake binding/flat tyre. At station the assistance should be given by Station staff to train crew. After detecting the culprit coach, the brakes should be released manually and thereafter, brake system should be isolated by closing isolating cocks of brake cylinders, isolating cocks in between FP and auxiliary Reservoir and isolating the DV by rotating DV handle to horizontal position as per detailed instructions given in the working time table.

ii) For vacuum brake stock-  Assistant Driver and Guard will find out location of brake binding/flat tyre. At station, the assistance should be given by Station staff to train crew. After detecting, the brake should be manually released and thereafter, the brake system should be isolated by disconnecting siphon pipe from release valve and providing wooden plug as dummy with hard grease on the loose end of siphon pipe. For this, the dummy plug/hard grease will be supplied to driver and guard as personal store, by the lobby incharges for guards and drivers at the time of sign on. The supply of the wooden plug/hard grease would be taken from C & W department.

iii) For Superfast trains or other trains on which TXR staff is accompanying, the Driver and Guard will be assisted by the on board TXR staff for activities mentioned in 6(i) & (ii).

6. If as a result of isolation of brake system as per para 6 (i) & (ii) above, the brake power enroute comes down below prescribed 90%, the train should be worked with restricted speed to the next train examination station.

7. Action to be taken by C&W staff
i) The train on which brake binding/flat tyre is reported should be examined by C&W staff at the first opportunity, investigated and certified FIT for further run.
ii) CWI/TXR staff should accompany the train whenever flat tyres are reported. They must ensure proper repair either at the enroute station or at the terminating station as deemed necessary.

8. Action to be taken by Train Crew at the time of Cattle run over
       i)  After cattle run over, if BP pressure/vacuum drops suddenly, train crew will check the train for the reason of BP pressure/vacuum drop. If any BP/FP/VAC hose pipe is found uncoupled train crew will couple it and ensure release of train brakes. The train crew will manually release the brakes, if there is brake binding. If manual release is not possible, the particular coach will be isolated as mentioned in par 6 (i) & (ii) above.

ii) Guard of the train will give necessary message to Section Controller regarding the affected coach at the next station, who will give details of the coach to C&W Controller.
TXR staff at the first available examination point will check the affected coach for proper functioning of brake equipment.

9. Action to be taken by Train Crew at the time of ACP
i) The train crew will check the train to find out the coach from which alarm chain has been pulled. After detecting the coach, resetting of ACP apparatus should be done.

ii) It should be ensured that there is no leakage after resetting the ACP.

iii) It should also be ensured that, the brakes of the affected coach are in released condition after resetting the ACP.

iv) If brakes are not released after resetting the ACP, then action should be taken as detailed at 6(i) & (ii) above.

10. Action to be taken by Train Crew after Emergency Brake Application-

Before starting the train it should be ensured that, prescribed amount of air pressure/vacuum has been obtained in engine and brakes are in fully released position.




In keeping with global trend, there has been a long outstanding demand of the industry and trade for transparency in sharing of information to give the customers an up-to date business like environment. Railways in this millennium have decided not only to perform the traditional tasks of carrying passengers and goods efficiently, but also to change the mindset of working as a closed system. The great concern to improve on its market share has prompted Railways to have a multi pronged approach to its freight policy. Continuous Cargo Visibility has always been a critical component of the Supply Chain Distribution Management System.

To achieve this, out of the stated multi pronged new freight policy, a lot of emphasis has been laid on establishing a computerized FREIGHT OPERATIONS INFORMATIONS SYSTEMS (FOIS). The system indigenously developed is fully functional in the B.G. system of Indian Railways being the first of its kind in South East Asia.

1. Freight Operations Information Systems Mission – FOIS

To give a total transparent system with continuous Cargo visibility and an up-to date business environment to the Customers with instant access to information regarding their consignments in transit for just in time inventory.
FOIS is an On-Line Real-Time system based on absolute current State of Art Technology and efficient Communication system.
A management tool to optimize utilization of costly assets and resources by improving the distribution of Rakes/Wagons & Locos, and also scheduling and Routing Traffic in an optimized cost effective manner.
Provides Continuous Cargo Visibility and enables the Freight customers to have instant access to information regarding the current status of their consignments in transit for just in time inventory.

2. Strategic Advantages Derived From the FOIS System

Ø  Extension of the current business practice from bulk movement of freight trafficin train load formations to piecemeal traffic by clubbing and moving togethersimilar type of stock in ‘Hub & Spoke’ arrangement to increase its market share by re- diverting high profit yielding piecemeal cargo from road to rail.
Ø  Global tracking of consignments in real time Rakes or individual wagons.
Ø  The insight and pipeline of consignments thus captured on the entire BG network is made available for timely planning and just in time inventory management on a time span cargo movement which may extend to 2 to 5 days from origin to destination.
Ø  Facilitate acceptance (customer’s Orders), billing and cash accountal of freight traffic from identified nodal customer centers which may not necessarily be the handling terminals.
Ø  Extension of such facilities to customer’s premises and introduction of ecommerce, benefiting both IR and trade & industry, by eliminating manual transactions which necessarily add to the burden of logistics management.
Ø  Providing requisite Foundation for a total logistics system furnishing real time information of the chain of physical distribution, an essential element in reducing inventory costs.

3. Scope of FOIS Systems

Presently two subsystems of FOIS are already in use after extensive field trials and validation.

a)    Rake Management Systems – RMS

1.       Rake based consignment tracking and pipeline
2.       Train / Rake operation
3.       Stock Holding in terms of summary of wagon types
4.       Train and Stock Interchange
5.       Terminal Handling performance
6.       Loco holding, outage and power on-line
7.       Reporting to take care of Train/Load on summary basis.
8.       Invoice based consignment tracking
9.       Wagon wise Stock Holding
10.   Reporting of consist Wagon wise
11.   Invoice based loading originating tonnage and revenues
12.   Wagon wise Interchange
13.   Statement of missing Wagons/wrongly delivered

b)    Terminal Management Systems – TMS

- Computerized booking and delivery of consignment
- Station Accounting
- RR generation / Transmission
- Improved Customer Interface

4. Crew Management has been developed & is under implementation. Control charting of trains currently being done manually will also be integrated with FOIS.
The above two sub systems have been fully developed and tested and are ready for implementation.

5. FOIS Design Architecture 

FOIS is designed and developed in conformity with the state of art technology which is scalable, maintainable, with open systems architecture and is based on the Indian Railways Organizational hierarchy, its present and future requirements. Based on the business processes that are being adopted, the business model developed in the FOIS – IT architecture is based on the assumptions:-

The current business practice of bulk movement in rake formation is the accepted norm for future also. Around 85% traffic already moves in Rake, majority of which comprises similar type of rolling stock.

Global perception is more important, with respect of tracking of consignment and Rakes rather than of individual wagon, locomotive and train. The insight and pipeline of consignment and rakes should be seamlessly available. Railway would like to share information on booking and movement of consignments with individual customers also.

The operations and data capturing, will remain control centric for train, rake, locomotive and stock management and terminal centric for booking, loading, unloading, and delivery. Taking into account the spatial distribution of activities, which need to be captured.

Integrity of Operation and Commercial data is an absolute necessity. RMS and TMS application are conceptualized, to provide the integration with the other subsystems as and when these are developed.

FOIS ultimately expects an even driven integrated reporting in real time, beginning with the tendering of Forwarding note to loading and generation of invoice, followed by load consists, train ordering and departure/arrival of load destination, unloading and delivery. The data thus captured is used for generating associated managerial reports on-line information (MIS). The data will also be used for expanding the scope to cover other functional areas of the remaining modules and can easily integrate with RMS/TMS using appropriate middle ware Technology for sharing information locally. Therefore, a strategic approach has been adopted to computerize IR operations by implementing RMS/TMS systems in a phased manner using modular approach.

6. FOIS System Architecture

Key components of the System Architecture

Intelligent terminals will be placed at the field locations to capture the data from the place of activity namely control offices, yards, goods sheds, C &W depot, Loco sheds etc., and connected to the identified Application Server through reliable communication links for transaction processing.

Application servers are centrally placed at CRIS office. These servers are connected to the Zonal Hd. Qtrs., Divisional Control Offices, Yards, interchange points and goods sheds etc., with a reliable and integrated network. The servers are networked amongst themselves and to the Central server for global level transactions.

The central server provides management Reports at board level and acts as repository of all the global data and also provides global services to maintain referential integrity of the databases including master files.

7. Network Topology

In view of the Centralized application architecture, a star based network topology has been designed. However, in order to provide alternate paths (to meet the up time requirement of 99.9%) from reporting locations, a mesh has been created with in each zone so that every location has at least two paths to reach CRIS. Each zonal HQ has been connected to central location (CRIS) on high bandwidth pipes. In addition to this, another zonal location has been connected to CRIS using high capacity link, hence these two high bandwidth links shall cater to the entire transaction load generated by a zone. Railway communication media has been provided for reliable and fast means of data transfer.

8. Phased Implementation – Approach

i) In case implementation is attempted for events of all the functions to be reported in real time, concurrently from day one, then the reporting sites to be readied, the associated communication requirements and the number of staff to be trained assume enormous proportions. To ensure that the implementation effort is within manageable limits, one way is to take up, one by one, only limited portions of geographical territory for computerization at any given time. On the other hand, if the territory issmall, instances of repetitive data entry increase; resulting in redundant expenditure on reporting infrastructure that will have no use as the territory expands. At the same time, if the MIS requirements are be met ion totality, the territorial expansion must ensure that a function is implemented on end to end basis as quickly as possible, otherwise only a truncated picture will beavailable to various levels of users and the benefits of computerization remain postponed till the entire Indian Railways have been covered.

ii) The FOIS comprises several subsets of functions each meeting a distinct set of objectives. Certain FOIS subsets presuppose others to be operational before they can be implemented. Loco and wagon based functions presuppose load/train/rake functions to be operational. Goods shed functions expect wagon-based functions to be in place before they can be implemented. With these assumptions the FOIS / RMS systems have been designed in a modular structure which could be taken up for implementation in a phased manner.

For example:-

Phase I (PI module)
Provides facility for reporting load summary with only wagon type and number of units.
Phase II (PII module)
Provides facility for reporting the consists with details of wagon numbers.
Phase III (PIII module)
TMS provides facility for good shed functions and generation of RR.

9. Implementation Strategy

Realizing that functional phasing is the only way to keep the implementation effort within manageable limit and yet remain meaningful at every stage, FOIS software has been developed as above in three modules such that functions of global utility are implemented faster from fewer sites. It also takes into account that the beginning is made from the control offices where computer awareness is of a high order. The implementation can grow on need basis driven by the Railways themselves.

For timely completion of field implementation, the total involvement and commitment of Railways is very essential from day one. Therefore, COMs of Railways have been given the total responsibility and charge of implementation of FOIS, to provide for the following:-

- Railways to get staff identified and train them to work on PCs
- Railways to prepare the sites for installation of hardware including provision of electrical and civil facilities.
- Maintenance of channels & data come equipment has been given to CSR of the zones.
- CRIS would provide specifications for the same.

For facilitating this process the organization of CAO/FOIS has been strengthened and made responsible for coordination, implementation on All – India – basis.

The software implementation and maintenance shall remain the responsibility of RIS. Pre implementation training of the required number of staff (consisting of Core Implementers and Telecom Inspectors from each of the divisions.), in RMS – phase 1 has been completed by CRIS for all the zonal railways and their divisions.

However, Railways will be required to make arrangements through the Zonal Training Schools to train the remaining staff of the concerned categories.

10. Benefits

i) Continuous Cargo Visibility

a)      Rake based consignment tracking and pipeline
b)      Invoice based loading – originating tonnage and revenues
c)       Information on trains on the run, the ETA at next point and the work to be performed.
d)      Vehicle guidance of all trains on run
e)      Daily report describing the performance of all through trains operated in a controlled territory for the day
f)       Actual / estimated arrival and departure particulars for a particular train at  any or all the reporting points.
g)      Yard or on the run delay information.
h)      Train and stock interchange
i)        Wagon wise interchange

ii) Optimised asset utilization

a)      Improved locomotive utilization by reduction in light engine running and reduced ineffective
b)      Statement of missing or wrongly delivered wagons and finally its elimination
c)       Elimination of un connected wagons
d)      Increased availability of repair capacity
e)      Stock holding
f)       Loco holding

iii) Increased revenue

Savings in wagon fleet would result in corresponding saving in the recurring cost of maintenance of wagons.
a)      Reduced locomotive power and rolling stock maintenance cost
b)      Savings in time and cost of handling in yards, cost of empty haulage
c)       Ensures optimal crew management and monitors statutory limits for running duty and overtime payments.
d)      Reduction in staff cost per unit of transportation due to improved productivity of the available manpower.

iv) Improved productivity per man year.

Accuracy of reporting in the head and hand system collecting data on telephones results in sizeable error levels, which need to be reconciled and corrected periodically. FOIS data with built in validation systems has zero errors.

a)      Drudgery of manual processes like maintenance of registers etc. is eliminated
b)      Particulars of crew on train with hours spent on duty
c)       Re deployment of major portion of staff involved in wagon tracing and  accounts checking activities.
d)      Improved customer service and satisfaction.
e)      Facilitation of acceptance (customers order) billing and cash accountals from identified nodal customer services centres and not necessarily at the handling terminals
f)       E-Commerce will facilitate the customers to operate from their premises for the above requirement of the above billing and cash accountal and thus reduced the burden of logistic management, and in addition drastically bring down the inventory costs in the entire chain of physical distribution system.
g)      Quick settlement of claims.
h)      Just in time inventory

v) Goods Shed Operations.

a)      Arrival particulars of wagons
b)      Placement and Release Particulars
c)       Information on demands registered and pending Indents
d)      Preparation of Railway Receipts
e)      Information on Demurrage and wharfage
f)       Loading particulars
g)      Goods Shed Earning
h)      Information on delayed wagons and Wagons awaiting Placement / Release.

II. Application/Software

RMS module has been developed with GUI interface which is highly interactive, very user friendly. The software is totally menu driven and navigation is through logically linked tasks. The application and front end forms for reporting events has been developed in Visual Basic and resides in the client machine located at the reporting location. Date is stored in the central server locate at CRIS.

1. General Concepts

A Rake is a much generalized term, which refers to any set of wagons moving together and has been identified in the system as rake. Wagons can be attached/detached to a Rake. A rake is identified by a unique defined ID number, which remains unchanged through various Load/Empty cycles & movements. A  Rake when given a destination is known as a Load. A Load when given a loco is known as a Train. Thus, there can be no Train without a Load & no Load without a Rake (except where a load is mixed and is not identified in the system as a rake). With a clear understanding of these terms, you enter data through clearly defined “tasks’.

The RMS software has two identifiable cycles-
Train cycle: It starts the moment a load is identified as a train and the following tasks are used for online reporting:-
Train Ordering: TO/Call between two crew-changing points.
Train Departure: reports departure.
Train Arrival: reports arrival.
Train Run-through: reports through runs
Train rerouting

Yard Cycle:  It starts as soon as a terminating load arrives at its destination or a train is cancelled. (i.e. the load is sent to load planning ) and the following tasks are used for various online reporting:-

Load Related Tasks

Inward Number Taking: destination validates consist.
Load Planning: initial activity, following rake assignment.
Load Stabling: run/ordering termination is reported through this.
Load Diversion/Termination/Extension: reports changes in planned load destinations
Load Yarding: takes a load-to-load planning screen, but will not reflect in stabled position.

Vehicle Guidance Related Tasks

Consist Reporting: originating station reports summary details. (Guidance is also called as Consist).

Rake Related Tasks

Rake Formation Details: from/modify rake consist.
Movement order: facility to give advance assignments to rake
Rake Placement/Release: reporting Load/Empty cycle.
Rake Dissipation: for generating piecemeal out of rake or for doing away with a rake which has no wagons left.
After a load is made ready, loco attached and train ordered
Again the train cycle begins.

Loco Related Tasks

Attachment/Detachment of locos.
Loco Reporting: reporting shed activities of loco.
Light Engine: reports light engine movements
Given above is the list of tasks that are to be performed on real-time basis i.e. as soon as the event takes place.
Demand: This function is to be reported at station where the party/consigner registers his Demand for supply of Rake/Piecemeal wagon for loading of goods.
The following tasks are used for reporting this activity:-
New demand
Modify demand
Add/delete demand
Fulfilling demand
Forfeiture /Withdrawal of demand

Interchange forecast: In the system as the trains are planned, a pipeline is generated from Originating Station to destination and the position can be viewed at any point in its route. Forecast can be reported by selecting trains from the pipeline shown at the interchange point. The task used is interchange forecast reporting task.

Given below is a summarized list of entity related tasks:-

Rake related tasks

Rake Formation Details: form/modify rake consist
Movement order: facility to give advance assignments to rake.
Rake Placement/Release: reporting Load/Empty cycle
Rake Merging: moving wagons from one to another rake.
Rake Dissipation: for generating piecemeal out of rake or for doing away with a rake which has no wagons left.

Load Related Tasks

Load Planning: initial activity, following rake assignment
Load Stabling: run/ordering termination is reported through this
Inward Number Taking: destination validates consist.
Load Diversion/Termination/Extension: reports changes in planned load destinations
Load Yarding: similar to stabling, but will not reflect in stabled position.
Cut-in by Arrival/Departure: was useful when there were non-computerized territories also.

Train Related Tasks

Train Ordering: To/Call between two crew-changing points.
Train Departure: reports departure.
Train Arrival: reports arrival.
Train Run-through: reports through runs

Loco Related Tasks

Attachment/detachment of Loco: reporting loco failure on run.
Loco Reporting: reporting shed activities of loco.
Light Engine: reports light engine movements.
Roadside/Piecemeal Wagons Related Tasks:
Attachment/Detachment of Wagons en route: load & consist are automatically modified in this task.
Piecemeal Placement/Release: reports piecemeal activities.
Piecemeal Sick/Fit Reporting: reports sick/fit.
Clearance of Detached Wagons: clears detached wagons.
Demand: reports indents for a good shed type of loading.

Vehicle Guidance Related Tasks

Consist Reporting: originating station reports summary details. (Guidance is also called as consist)
Detentions Related Tasks
Train Detention en route: reports unscheduled stoppages.
Pre departure Detentions: reports detentions suffered by loads/trains at yards/stations.

Other Tasks

Interchange Forecast: reports daily targets, which should be frozen by noon.
BPC & Crew details: reports these details.
Modify ETA: changes ETA for a train.
Re-routing : changes path of a train while on run

As you realize these are all routine tasks. Besides this the divisions have to carry out some systemic tasks which help in generating MIS reports (name for reports which are not generated on online data) and some time specific reports.