20140823

Duties of Control Staff

Duties of Control Staff: The main duties of control staff which are only guidelines to their day to day working and are not exhaustive are as under.

a) Chief Controller (In-charge)

The chief controller is in overall charge of control office and is responsible for the total transportation of the Division on day to day basis. His duties include –

i. A review of previous day’s performance to conform that all forecasts made have been fully met. For shortfalls, convincing reasons have to be pinpointed to prevent recurrence.
ii. Prepare current forecast indicating assistance needed from headquarters, adjoining Division, Railways.
iii. These will generally relate to interchange, loading and locomotive utilisation.
iv. Checking control chart and bringing to the notice of the Senior Divisional Operations Manager/Divisional Operational Manger all avoidable detention to trains.
v. Punctuality performance with particular reference to trains which lost punctuality.
vi. Maintaining statistics regarding the punctuality of passenger trains.
vii. Scrutiny of stock papers, Monitoring interchange obligation.
viii. Watching detention to stock at stations and terminals.
ix. Watching the work of Marshalling yards/Freight terminals.
x. Maintaining liaison with neighbouring Division.
xi. Watching utilisation of loco and their terminal detention.
xii. Checking duty hours of running staff and balancing of crews.
xiii. Granting engineering, power blocks etc.
xiv. Attending control office in cases of accident.
xv. Establishment work of control office.

b) Chief controller (Movement)/ Dy. Chief Controller / Shift duty:

He is responsible for:
i. Running of goods train, preparing interchange forecast, and monitoring the same, loco utilisation and passenger and goods train operations in general.
ii. Allotting empty stock/rakes to loading stations in accordance with current priority regulations along with Deputy Chief Controller (Stock), maintaining constant touch with adjacent Division through regular conference to facilitate the smooth flow of traffic.
iii. Dealing immediately with significant detention or transport bottleneck and other unusual.
iv. Keeping constant touch with the working of major terminals & Marshalling yards and taking timely action to deal with congestion.
v. Giving advice of serious accident to all concerned, and taking, charge of the affected sections.
vi. Supervising the running of oversized consignments.
vii. Maintaining liaison with Power controller.
viii. Coordinate the work of various section controllers.
ix. Maintain discipline among control staff in the absence of Chief controller.
x. Maintain coordination and liaison with various functionaries involved in train running.

c) Chief controller (stock) / Dy. Chief Controller:

He is responsible for:
i. Scrutinising the indent register in details with regard to the oldest date of registration, nature of goods and type of stock required for lifting goods as per the oldest date of registration.
ii. Checking Divisional stock report and position of empties.
iii. Checking of different stock reports received from the various points and Planning in advance the supply of stock, loading and clearance keeping in view interchange obligation and orders received.
iv. Checking transshipment activity.
v. Chasing movements of stock as per supply order issued on the previous day.
vi. Keeping a close watch over hot axle, special type and unconnected wagons.
vii. Cross checking the daily Restriction Bulletin with Restriction Messages received from HQ office and issuing the same.
viii. Assisting the Sr.DOM/ DOM in allotments.
ix. Keeping a close watch over the movements of seasonal perishable traffic and supply of suitable stock for its clearance.
x. Watching movements of damaged loaded stock in sick lines and yard on their Division.
xi. Informing all major customers about their inward trains’ expected arrival based on FOIS pipe line, Optimising loading, unloading, transshipment etc.

d) Duties of Dy. Chief Controller (Punctuality):

i. Ensuring punctuality of passenger trains in system.
ii. Ensuring punctuality at the start of the all outgoing passenger trains.
iii. Maintaining Detention Reports of Coaching trains.
iv. Ensure that late running trains make up time.

e) Section Controller:

The Section controller shall be responsible for:
i. Reporting for the duty at the prescribed time and ascertaining the position of the section from his reliever.
ii. Recording the movement of trains on the ‘Control’ graph including crossing, connections and shunting reasons for detention etc.
iii. Arranging for the supply and clearance of stock as ordered by Dy.Chief Controller.
iv. Advising stations in advance of the work to be done on trains on move.
v. Informing sheds and stations about the late running of the trains to avoid the calling of Crew and Guards earlier than necessary or to put back train wherever advisable.
vi. Informing major stations and concerned Section controller about the current running of trains on the section and their anticipated arrivals well in time.
vii. Keeping in close touch with Engineering –blocks and working of material Trains so as to give the maximum possible time with least detention to other traffic.
viii. Incident management to include adjusting movement of the trains in view of the likely impact of the incident, informing all concern.
ix. Keeping a watch over damaged vehicles detached at road side stations and arranging repair or transshipment of their contents and proper attention on the part of the train examining staff.
x. Arrangement of ART & M/Van in case of accident.
xi. Eliminating all possible detention to train and stock.
xii. Watching the working of Marshalling yards & major terminals.
xiii. Making timely arrangements for the relief of Guards/Loco pilots whose duty
Hours are likely to exceed enroute.
xiv. Recording stock report ( where stock clerks are not posted)

f) Power controller/Traction Loco controller:

i. Planning and directing engine movements so as to ensure efficient engine utilization and maintaining the prescribed charts, and regular statistics.
ii. Co-ordination with sheds and Dy. Chief Controllers (Movement) for sending overdue engines and obtaining time of engines coming out of shed.
iii. Making timely arrangement for the relief of crew whose duty hours are likely to be exceeded enroute.
iv. Taking timely action to balance crew so as to prevent cancellation or putting back of trains on account of shortage of crew.
v. Arranging relief in case of accidents as per Chapter iv to viii of accident manual.
vi. Maintaining charts indicating engine position/ utilisation.
vii. Rendering advice and assistance to locomotive running staff regarding trouble shooting.
viii. Carrying out any other duties allotted to him by the Sr.DME/DME or Sr. DEE /DEE from time to time.
ix. Monitoring day to day stock position of diesel fuel at RDIs and watching Movement of diesel fuel tank wagons (for power controllers only)

g) Traction Power Controller:

Traction power Controller shall be responsible for - 
i. While taking over shift duty acquaint him self with the prevailing position of the entire section, including the working of the Remote Control equipment position of all transformers, current breaker’s interrupters and isolators, section under power block, position of tower wagons and breakdown vehicle etc.
ii. Maintaining continuous contact with the Traffic Section Controllers in regard to power supply affecting train movements, imposition of power blocks etc.
iii. Taking prompt action for restoration of supply in the event of power supply interruptions or other failure.
iv. Imposing and removing power blocks in consultation with Traffic Section controller.
v. Advising promptly the concerned officials in case of accident, OHE breakdown, failure of power supply and keeping them posted with all important developments.

Operating Discipline

i. Line Staff to obey orders of control:

Station staff, Shed staff, Crew and Guards etc must obey orders issued by the control as long as these orders are consistent with the General and Subsidiary Rules, extant instructions and the instructions contained in this Manual.

ii. Control order register:

Important instructions from control will first be recorded in a register maintained in the control office and serially numbered, commencing with number 1 after midnight each day. These will be issued as messages indicating the time of issue.
All such orders received by the Station Masters or Running staff and Guard’s lobby from Control should be entered in the control order register by the staff. Each entry must be initialed with time. At the end of each turn of duty the relieved as well as the relieving SM or Crew Controller must sign their name in full below the last entry in the register. On days when no orders are received from control, “Nil” Entry must be recorded and signed as prescribed above. When a Station Master or Crew Controller has received an order from the Controller and entered in his register, he may repeat it to the control in order to satisfy himself and the control that he has understood it correctly.
iii. No terminal Station should start a goods or unscheduled train or block the section without the permission of the controllers.
iv. Every station on the section must report the movement of every train passenger, goods, special, departmental, light engines, TTMs, Tower wagons, trolleys etc. to the controller.
v. When the control is in function, Line Clear must be asked from the station ahead for every train unless orders to stop it are given by the controller.
vi. The controller’s permission must be obtained before stopping a train that should run through except to avert an accident or dangerous condition.
vii. No station should allow a train, which has been stopped out of course, to proceed, without first informing the controller that the train has been so stopped and receiving his further orders.
viii. Station Master must advise the controller of any unauthorised or undue detention to trains at their station with full explanation.
ix. Whenever a train, either passenger or goods is detained at a station for longer than the booked halt without the orders of the controller, on its departure the Station Master must immediately inform the brief cause of the detention to the controller.
x. Whenever any damaged wagon is detached out of course at a station, the Station Master on duty should inform the controller.
xi. Station Master must promptly advise the controller of any defects of signals, points, interlocking apparatus and line clear instruments at their stations. Information should be given of any defects in any other station machinery such as cranes, wagon weigh bridges, turn tables, water columns, hydrants etc.
xii. Starting stations to report particulars of outgoing train: As soon as a train leaves a train starting station, the Station Master must intimate the following particulars to the control office: Number and description of train, Engine number and class, Loco pilot’s Name, Guard’s name, load of the train (in tonnes and vehicles) particulars of shunting to be done on the journey, time of departure, brief reasons of late start, time of S/O of crew, fuel balance etc.
xiii. Intermediate stations to report arrival and departure time of trains:
Station Master of intermediate station must communicate to the control as early as possible, the following information in regard to every train dealt with:
a. In case the train has run through, the time it passed the station.
b. If it is a stopping train, the time or arrival and departure along with the
explanation for every detention beyond the scheduled stoppage.
c. If any shunting has been performed, the number of vehicles attached and
detached.
d. If any extra time has been taken in loading and unloading of packages, the
number of such packages and name of the loading station.
xiv) Terminating stations to report the particulars of incoming trains:
Station master of terminal and engine changing station must, as soon as possible,after the arrival of a train, communicate to the control the time of arrival and the load of the train, particulars of loco detached / attached.
xv) Engine movement to and from sheds to be reported:
Loco foreman must communicate to control the time at which train engine leave from or returns to the shed ‘Bahar’ line. This in no way relieves the Station Master of the responsibility for issuing necessary all concerned messages regarding engine failures and engine trouble enroute. The Controller shall record the duration of such defects in his chart, diary and registers.
xvi) Time to be checked with Control:
Station Master, crew controller and lobbies must check their time with Control at appointed hours every day when control gives a general ring for setting their watches / clocks at 16.00 hrs. Staff must obtain Station Master’s permission before speaking to controller.
xvii) Mode of using the control phone:
The control telephone is to be used for operation purposes. The field staff wanting to talk to control will give their identity and wait for their turn to communicate. As this network is intensively used, the conversation should be brief, meaningful and polite. Discussions, disputes and arguments must be avoided.
a) Station master and others must not start to speak to control unless they have ascertained by lifting the receiver and listening in, that the line is free. They must then announce the name of the station, shed, lobby or site from where they are speaking and wait for its being repeated by the controller before beginning the conversation.
b) When, however an urgent message has to be conveyed and the line happens to be engaged, the station name must be called indicating Emergency. The controller will immediately attend to the Station having an emergency. Station Masters must attend Control call promptly.

Basic Function of control

Basic Function of control:

1. Train Control:

a) This job is done by SCOR(Section Controller).
b) Each SCOR is provided with the master chart of that section.
c) In the master chart the path of M/E and Passenger trains are charted in different colors.
d) This master chart helps in making advance planning by SCOR.
e) With the help of master chart, SCOR guides the SM and Yard Master relating to the movement of trains.
f) SCOR gets advices regarding train operation and optimum use of wagons and engines from the CHC and Dy. CHC.
g) Supervising & regulating movement of trains from station to station on the section to avoid delay to trains and to maximize utilization of the capacity of the section by :-
1. Monitoring movement of trains from station to station and recording
paths and detention on charts.
2. Arranging crossing and precedence of trains judiciously.
3. Arranging working of departmental and material trains.
4. Giving time signal to all stations on the section daily at appointed time.
5. Fulfilling interchange commitment.
6. Arranging proper movement of assisting/banking/light engines.
7. Clearance of sick wagons from Roadside stations.
8. Arrangement of relief for 10 hours duty staff.
9. Incident management on rail network & at station.
10. Arranging Engineering and/or power blocks in such a way as to involve
minimum disturbance to train running.
11. Maintaining fluidity of yards by controlling the flow of stock in and out
of yard.
12. Arranging Speedy relief in case of accidents.

2. Traffic control

Traffic control is the general and over-riding control of supervision of the movement of goods and coaching traffic on the section. It is exercised by:
a) Traffic Control means controlling and regulating the movement and distribution of coaching and goods stock and directing it’s loading, unloading, dispatch and arranges passage through yards.
b) The aim of traffic control is to maximize unloading and loading in the division, fulfill the interchanging of trains and effective utilization of the available resources such as engines, wagons and bankers etc.
c) This job is performed by Dy. CHC in the division such as ordering the movement of goods train, allotting the wagons to goods shed and station for loading, giving special attention to block rakes, giving inward traffic for loading, advise regarding running of loaded or empty wagon rakes.
d) Granting of blocks to engineering, OHE and S&T departments.
e) Look out for speed restrictions and running of material train and give blocks for repairs and maintenance in such a manner so that it would not affect train movement.
f) To admit trains in yard in such a way so that working capacity of the yard is not affected.
g) Collecting information from the various section in respect of -
i. Registration of wagons outstanding at stations and arrangements for supply of wagons.
ii. Number of wagons loaded and empty wagons/rakes awaiting despatch.
h) Arranging running, regulation, putting back and cancellation of trains. (both freight & coaching) and to ensure optimum utilization of loco and staff to derive maximum benefit..
i) Collecting stock position from the different stations, marshalling and terminal yards, arranging supply of wagons against pending registration and ensure optimum utilization of stock by securing maximum loads for trains with minimum detention
j) Arrangement of crew & Guard for freight trains.
k) Monitoring and coordinating working of yards, goods shed sidings, locoshed, TXR depots etc and to keep liaison with adjoining Railways and Division for interchange commitments.
l) Keep strict vigil on the wagons, which are unable to move and make arrangement for quick repair of them.
m) In case of accident inform all the concerned officials and the other staff.
n) To make arrangement of men for speedy availability of assistance at accident site including ART/MRV, crane etc and ensure quick despatch of the break down in case of accidents and other coordination.

3. Power control

Power control is responsible for provision of motive power to all trains by maintaining position of locomotive
(a) Requisitioning engines from loco sheds for all operating requirements, i.e. Train working. Shunting and Banking.
(b) Ensuring most economical use of engines by close supervision both in Traffic Yards and sheds.
(c) Ensuring the return of engines to “Home Sheds” at regular intervals for servicing and maintenance.
(d) Ensuring an even balance of engines and crews between running sheds for meeting demands of traffic,
(e) Ensuring that light engine kilometers is kept to the minimum.
(f) Provide guidance to running staff for troubleshooting.

4. Carriage and Wagon control 

Carriage and Wagon control is responsible to assist the train and traffic control and to-
(a) Ensure timely examination and fitness of all trains
(b) To keep a watch over the detachment of sick wagons/coaches and to arrange for their early repair and fitness.
(c) Keeping a watch over availability of vital C & W components, like Air Hoses, Washers, clamps etc. and efficient working of equipment & machines in C&W depot to avoid detention to trains.
(d) To keep a watch over placement of wagons/coaches in sick line and their release.
(e) To keep account of detention to trains on C&W account and take remedial action.
(f) To provide guidance to running staff for trouble shooting.
(g) For Electrical Multiple units, this function is performed by EMU controller.
(h) Monitor the movement of POH due stock to workshops.

5. Commercial control

Commercial control  assists the Traffic control.
(a) To expeditiously dispose off unclaimed and unconnected wagons. Parcel consignments.
(b) To keep a watch on detention to trains on commercial account like Alarm chain pulling. Carriage watering, parcel working etc., and take remedial measures.
(c) To ensure quick transshipment of sick wagons by arranging matching stock and labour.
(d) To keep a watch over submission of station returns.
(e) Monitoring of public complaints lodged at the stations.
(f) To ensure proper maintenance of public amenities available at stations.
(g) Any other job entrusted by Sr. DCM/DCM.

6. Traction power control

Traction power control is provided to assist in Traffic and Train control for -
a) Arranging maintenance blocks for OHE
b) Arranging alternative power supply in case of tripping etc., though remote control.
c) Monitoring OHE failure and taking remedial action.
d) Monitoring detention of trains on OHE accounts.
e) Guiding running/station staff in trouble shooting.

7. Engineering control:

Monitors imposition & cancellation of Engineering Restrictions, working of track machines & monitoring integrated maintainable blocks, co- ordinates works during maintenance blocks and running of Material trains.

8. Signal control 

Signal control assists Traffic and Train control and is responsible -
(a) To keep a watch over the S&T failures and take remedial action.
(b) To ensure efficient working of communication channels.

9. Security control 

Security control is responsible for prevention of theft of property and assists
passengers in trains/stations.

10. Crew Control:

a) Crew control ensures availability of Train crew (Loco Pilot).
b) He has got the details of all kinds of loco pilot available in the division like Goods & passenger.
c) Issue instruction to all depot/Lobbies regarding movement of crew so that crew may be available for the traffic in all directions as per forecast.
d) Maintain the balance of crew with all adjoining divisions.
e) Arrange relief for loco pilot and avoid bursting of 10 Hour rule.

12. ETL Control:

Issues instructions to ETL staff if complained regarding fan, light, Battery and dynamo in train.

Functions of Traffic control:

The main functions of Traffic Control are:
a. Continuous supervision of the movement of all traffic in the controlled area with a view to achieve the maximum possible operating efficiency.
b. Correct ordering of trains and use of locomotives so as to reduce to a minimum the productive time of power and personnel, and losses on account of wasted haulage capacity on trains and thus to keep the "turn round" as low as possible;
c. Systematic maintenance of accurate charts of train movement and the arrangement of crossing and precedence to the greatest advantage.
d. Analysis of detentions to trains
e. Planning, ordering and running of goods trains to the best possible paths.
f. Maintaining the fluidity of marshalling yards/freight terminals.
g. Taking remedial action in the event of yard/terminal congestion.
h. To allot and distribute coaching and goods stock and direct its loading, dispatch, and movement, particularly through intermediate marshalling yards, and to so direct its placement and quick release so as to attain the quickest possible "turn round" and ensure elimination of avoidable detentions to goods stock at loading and unloading points and at transshipment stations.
i. To keep in the closest touch with the operation of continuous sections and divisions so as to avoid congestion and lack of fluidity;
j. Supply of information to adjoining controls, terminals and engine changing stations regarding the movement of trains to enable adequate timely arrangements for their reception and onward dispatch.
k. Arranging engineering and other department blocks with minimum detention to traffic.
l. Running of material trains and other track machines, tower wagons etc.
m. Arranging relief for engine crew and Guard.
n. Ensuring maximum utilization of locomotive.
o. Issuing instructions for train working in case of equipment failures and whenever abnormal method or working has to be resorted to.
p. Speedy arrangements for relief rescue and restoration in the event of accident.
q. To assist in the realistic planning of time tables and punctual running of passenger trains in co-ordination with various departments other divisions and other railways.
r. To keep a watch over damaged stock at road side stations, yards and sick lines and to ensure that they are promptly attended to.
s. To rectify immediately the irregularities on the part of line staff and provide them necessary guidance.
t. To provide operations management information.
u. To ensure smooth functioning of FOIS and other IT applications.
v. To provide an impulse of human energy and brain power throughout the section and by coordination and direction ensure the free movement of traffic and thereby obtain the maximum output from each unit involved at the minimum cost to the administration.

The functions of the Control organization may, for the purpose of understanding be conveniently classified under the heads of planning, execution and review, though in practice, of course, all three activities would be going on simultaneously.

PLANNING

1. forecast of interchange;
2. forecast of trains to be run section wise;
3. forecast of supply of empties for bulk loading transshipment, etc.;
4. forecast of unloading;
5. planning for engineering blocks and special moves.

Information required for this purpose:

1. power availability
2. availability of loads
3. disposition of empties and planning for loading
4. analysis of midnight divisional wagon balance

The plan is made by CTNL daily at 0800 hrs. and reviewed by Sr.DOM and HQ is informed by 1000 hrs. both immediate and antecedent, for taking remedial action to prevent their recurrence.

EXECUTION

The day's plan is to be executed by yards, loco sheds, TXR depots, transshipment supervisors, area controls, SMs and must, therefore, be communicated to them as soon as it is finalized.

Instructions are given in the course of the morning conference, modified as necessary after conference with the HQ. The performance is reviewed once at 1600 hrs and briefly at night.

REVIEW: OBJECTIVES

1. Analyzing shortfalls of previous day to take remedial measures and pin point weak spots;
2. Provide basic data for planning for current day.

The following are the main features of the previous day's performance which are reviewed:

Interchange
Divisional wagon balance
Train running
Disposition of empties
Particulars of stabled loads
Yard balances
Unloading on division
Registrations and loading
Transshipment performance
Punctuality
Power utilization
Sick line working
Accidents, unusual occurrence
Special type stock
Crane wagons (heavy lift)

Telecommunication-Facilities in Control:

Extensive, efficient and reliable communication network is necessary for the efficient functioning of the Control organization. The following telecommunication network is available in control offices.

1. FOIS Network
2. Mobile Train Radio Communication (MTRC)
3. Dual Phone Modulation Frequency (DPMF)
4. Hot lines are provided between:
a) Headquarter and divisions
b) Adjoining Divisions and Railways
c) Intercom facility to various officers and other functionaries concerned with the control is connected with important work with STD or Trunk exchanges.

3. Deputy Control lines:

This circuit is provided between various functionaries in the control office, stations and important work centers like yards, loco sheds, crew booking lobbies.

4. Section control circuit:

This circuit is connected to all the stations and the section controller, Chief controller etc.

5. Traction Power control circuit:

This additional circuit is available on the electrified sections; this is connected to T.P.C. in OHE remote control centre, all stations, control offices and selected work places. The section controller or T.P.C. can also be connected from the emergency socket provided over the sections of line by means of portable telephone of the control point with indication on the electric mast, direction
wise, to the nearest circuit.

6. Section control board:

The section controller of each section is provided with control board with telecommunication facilities for coaching stations, certain important cabins, big freight terminals, loco shed etc. over a section. For the guidance of section controller, the lay out of all the stations and sidings is painted on a large board.
The station lay out diagram is also provided with details of holding capacity of each of the running & non-running lines, gradients and signals. In electrified area, OHE sectioning diagram is provided. This depicts element section in different colours & other details of sectioning post (SP) and Sub-sectioning post
(SSP).

7. Graphs and Plotting:

1. Trains are plotted on control graphs which consist of horizontal and vertical lines representing distance and time respectively. Along side vertical lines stations are each and each unit is further sub-divided into 5 smaller units of 2 minutes each.

2. Each control graph at the end of the shift may have the following information on it.
a. Name and total distance of the section in Kilometers.
b. Distance in Kms between each station on the section.
c. Weather condition in each shift.
d. Engineering restrictions on the section.
e. Code names of each station of the section.
f. Time lost by each train on loco, traffic or engineering account at or between stations.
g. Section controller’s remarks against item (f).
h. Time made up each train on loco, traffic or engineering account.
i. Guard’s record of time lost on loco, traffic or engineering account at or between stations and remarks.
j. General remarks.
k. Signal failures.

3. In plotting various types of trains the coloured pencils shall be used as per extant convention. All up trains are plotted from the bottom of the chart upwards and from the left diagonally towards the right; and all down trains are plotted from the left diagonally towards the right; and all down trains are plotted from the top of the chart downwards and also diagonally from the left towards the right.

4. For judicious crossing and precedence, it is necessary to have plotting of passenger trains at least one hour in advance depending on traffic density in easily erasable lines. Now through computerised charting this is automated. On certain selected controls, this function has been automated.

8) Master Charts:

For every section, Master charts indicating trains run in 24 hours are prepared which show the running of each Mail, Express or passenger trains over the section according to its scheduled running. In between the running of the trains carrying passenger, paths for goods trains are worked out and plotted. They are helpful in revision of Time tables and planning the running of any extra trains and guidance of SCORs and should be displayed on the board to which they refer.

Preparation of Master Charts

Trace out the paths of Passenger/Mail/Express Trains keeping in mind the timings necessary at divisional and zonal interchange points.

The following points are to be kept in mind while preparing Master Charts:

(a) The Capacity of originating yard in forming trains and starting them.
(b) The capacity at the terminals to receive the trains (Availability of platform lines, Pit line, TXR lines etc)
(c) Facilities at enroute for crossing or precedence.
(d) Spreading out evenly occupation of Block Section to avoid bottlenecks, if trains run late.
(e) On Double Line sections, grouping of trains of uniform speed so that detention and precedence becomes minimum.
(f) On single line sections, if the paths of Up and Dn direction trains can be traced at different periods the number of crossings can be reduced.
(g) Running time of Trains suiting to 10 Hours duty of running staff.
(h) Keeping in mind the time for crew changing, fueling, watering the coaches, passenger lunch/dinner.

Integrated Blocks:

In order to ensure safety and reliability of the system the maintenance and repairs to the track, points and crossings, Bridges, Signals and Overhead equipments etc. is inevitable. To make best use of available time integrated blocks are planned in co-ordination with different departments to undertake the maintenance works simultaneously instead of piecemeal blocks taken by different departments separately. Duration of the integrated blocks is determined on the basis of margins available in the Master charts and passenger operations. The details of integrated blocks are notified in the working timetables separately for each division indicating the section up and down lines, duration of block period and their implications, if any. These blocks are subject to minor adjustments depending upon running of trains. However, all out efforts should be made to ensure that the blocks are permitted as prescribed in the working time tables. The running of trains
particularly goods trains should be adjusted by the Sr.DOM and Chief Controllers of respective divisions to avoid detentions during the block on account of temporary single line working and precedence being given to passenger carrying trains. Except for the works given in the TWOs, no other maintenance block shall be given to any department. All works shall be allowed within the Engineering allowance provided for each division.

Principal Chief Engineer, who shall co-ordinate the operation of blocks and maintenance works by all other departments, nominates one of the Sr.DEN of the division. The works to be executed shall be planned in advance in block meetings attended by officers of concerned department with all preparatory arrangements
made well in advance for the smooth and timely execution of blocks without causing undue detention of traffic and inconvenience to passengers.
All concerned should ensure that blocks are not burst as to avoid adverse effect on running of trains and inconvenience to traveling public.

Traffic Corridor Block:

1. It is the time interval between two successive scheduled Mail Express trains in the particular section on the Division available for maintenance work done by various departments.
2. It is mentioned in the Working Time Table of concerned division.
3. The corridor block is shown in the master chart of the concerned division.
4. This period of corridor block may also be used for running goods trains.
5. Maintenance schedules on the divisions are to be managed as per the corridor blocks.

C H A R T I N G:

It is nothing but plotting all the train movements in a time and distance chart by section controller. Master Chart is prepared and kept before him as a guide for plotting Passenger / Mail / Express movements. After tracing the paths for all Passenger Carrying Trains the paths of Goods Train can be traced and they are classified in to 3 kinds.

1) Goods Path - Requiring minimum running time.
2) Auxiliary Path- Suitable for short distances
3) Bad Path - Shall not be used except in case of emergency because it occupies maximum time.

For the purpose of Section Capacity the paths of scheduled trains and goods paths are only taken into consideration and the number arrived at, shall not be less than the number obtained by Scott’s Formula. If so, it is considered as lead charting and requires revision.

Method of Charting:

Every chart is printed for 8 Hours which shall by chart neatly and legibly in the following manner:

1. Station names are printed in vertical rows, as far as possible in proportion of main distances with required details like Kilometer, inter-station distance etc., in the left and station codes on the right.
2. The station name from Top to bottom refers down direction and bottom to top - Up direction.
3. In the horizontal row, broad lines refer to hours and these are further divided in to by thin lines in 6 parts. Every line is referring to 10 minutes each of which in further sub divided into 5 parts, by dots each dot referring to 2 minutes.
4. The timings of trains are marked by dots above the line for Up trains and below the line for Down trains usually.
5. The progress of Up trains is indicated by a line from bottom left to top right and progress of Dn train is indicated by a line from top left to bottom right.
6. Trains being received from other stations from other sections or going to other sections from a section or starting from a station in the same section or terminating in a station in a same section are to be shown by a line in the same Up and Down inclination either with vertical line or dissimilated inclination starting or ending.
7. Blocking of running line is indicated by drawing a continuous horizontal red line either below or above the line, as per its direction, from the time it is blocked till it is cleared.
8. Time loss or gain in a section is shown as plus or minus with minutes.
9. Temporary speed restrictions are indicated in the form of a small red triangle with prescribed speed restriction, on the right side between two station codes.
10. Attaching of loco is indicated by a semi circle up or down depending upon the
actual direction.
11. Train parting / dividing is indicated by showing detention in mid-section by drawing a horizontal line, the plotting movement of the first portion to the next station. The second portion is indicated by a dotted line in red. Arrival of engine, attaching and clearing second portion is plotted normally.
12. When scheduled trains lose time, in section, the schedule passage is shown in dotted line and actual passage is plotted.
13. Detentions to trains are to be serially written in remarks column.
14. Usually the following colours are used for plotting:
(a) Mail/Express Trains and other trains – Red
(b) For other passenger carrying trains - Blue
(c) Goods trains (Electric Traction) - Green
(d) Goods Train (Diesel Traction) - Lilac (Violet/Pale Purple)
(e) Other Goods Trains, Ballast Trains - Ordinary Pencil

Checking of Control Charts:

Control Charts have to be checked regularly to take up all cases of detentions that have taken place and also other irregularities. Chief controller to scrutinize the charts, AOM looks and gets a picture of it and DOM does test checks.

Chart reading brings out the following:

Late Starts; Wrong crossings and precedence; Wrong stabling of goods trains;
Cross working of light engines etc.,


CONTROL ORGANISATION

CONTROL ORGANIZATION

The control organization of Indian Railways is the nerve centre of train operations. It controls the asset management of the Railways, in a dynamic situation, round the clock incessantly moving trains on its entire network. It has come a long way from being an exclusively telephone based system emerging in the form of an Information Technology enabled organization.This basic structure of Operating control on Indian Railways exists at the Divisional Level, which has also been extended to Area control levels. In addition, Central Control office is situated in the headquarters office and one at Railway Board.

Objectives of the control organization:

1. To ensure Punctuality of the mail / express and passenger trains.
2. To ensure maximum utilization of the rolling stock
3. To ensure maximum utilization of the section capacity
4. To increase the speed of goods trains.
5. Maximum utilization of the train crew.

Control organization at RB level


Control organization at Zonal level


CFTM: Chief Freight Transportation Manager,
CPTM: Chief Passenger Transportation Manager,
CTPM: Chief Transport Planning Manager,
CTM: Chief Transportation Manager (POL – Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants),
CNM: Chief Network Manager;
STM: Senior Transportation Manager.

Traffic control is divided into two units at the HQ level for easing up its objectives:

a. Central control, and
b. Emergency control

Responsibility of traffic operation through out the zonal Railway lies with COM assisted by CPTM, CFTM. The COM advices all divisions regarding traffic and ensure that the objectives are fulfilled as per policy guidelines and planning.

Central Control:

 Chief controller is the head of the central control. All the functions are done on his direct supervision. He is responsible to the COM. Dy.Chief Controller (Coaching, Goods, and Stock) assists the Chief Controller.

The following are the functions performed by the central control:

1. Wagons available in divisions, received and forwarding wagons, yard balance at ZERO hour and figures of wagons at 24:00 hours i.e. clearance.
2. Data is made in case of accident and concerned department’s officer is informed.
3. Keeps a close watch on the relief trains.
4. Collection of figures of received tank wagons in excess, and for transshipment.
5. Collection of figures of stabled wagons with description of vehicle / train.
6. Analysis of detention to trains.
7. Running of goods trains to their best possible paths.
8. Elimination of avoidable detention to goods stock at loading and unloading and Transshipment sheds.
9. Allotment and distribution of goods stock to the Stations.
10. Arrangement of line blocks and to provide maximum time possible for the working of material trains.
11. Arrange relief for crew.
12. Ensure optimum utilization of the locomotives.
13. Issue proper instructions for train working during abnormal working.
14. Arrange speedy relief in case of accident.
15. Help connecting the unconnected wagons.
16. Ensure correct marshalling of trains.
17. Assist in the preparation of timetable in coordination with neighboring divisions, and Railways.
18. Advice stations and permanent way staff regarding weather warning to take necessary precautions.
19. Arrange periodic census.

B. Emergency Control:

1. The Chief of Emergency Control Office is CHC assisted by Dy. CHC in shifts.
2. Dy. CHC prepares figures of passenger trains run shift wise and as per the directives of CHC.
3. In emergency control, advance diary is prepared in which special instructions are mentioned. This diary is made date wise in different pages.
4. Maintain punctuality of all passengers, M/E trains run in CR.
5. Inform the running position of trains to foreign Railway along with late running and also the description of late running trains and departure time of trains.
6. Observe loss of punctuality percentage, its causes, and position of coaching stock, current situation of wagons, parcel vans etc and collection of data.
7. Record of operation of special trains, bogies is kept in this office.
8. Concerned divisions are informed of passenger trains and other coaching trains.
9. All the data regarding coaching such as Fair Special, Summer Special, Relief Special etc is collected.

Control organization at the Divisional level


The Control Organisation is one of the Principal Means by which the essential Coordination is obtained in Railway Operation. It is from where, the planning activities of day to day working are done and the orders are issued to the stations and yards for execution.

It can be compared to the brain of human. Normally the Divisional Control Office is located in the Divisional Head Quarters and connected to the station and yards through various communication systems. If the size of the division is large and controlling becomes difficult a sub control office may also be provided at a convenient location.

The area spread of a division is divided into control sections having a given number of stations. A section is generally of the range of 50 to 150 km stretch and the trains are controlled in the section by the Section Controller. The two-way telephone system, also called an omnibus circuit which permits all stations to have
direct communication with section controller, who is responsible for train regulation in his area. The section controller can speak to all stations at the same time or to one station selectively, using individual numbers/buttons. Movement of train is plotted on time distance graph to record their actual progress, these records, called control charts, can be analyzed later.

Sr.DOM has the administrative control of the Divisional Control Office. CHC is the head of the control organisation. For easy and effective controlling, the entire division is divided into various sections and a well knit communication is provided for monitoring minute to minute activities at stations and yards. CHC (In-charge) is assisted by –
Dy. Chief Controller Goods/Mainline
Dy. Chief Controller Coaching
Dy. Chief Controller Stock
Section Controllers
Chief Trains Clerk
Head Trains Clerk
Trains Clerks

The Chief controller being the head of the control organisation is assisted byDy.Chief controller in Freight and Passenger train operations. Dy. CHC looks after the Traffic Control who will guide and assist the SCORs. All technical disciplines involved in train movement have are representative in the control office to provide the required support from his department. These would include-

Chief Diesel Power Controller
Chief Traction Loco Controller
Chief Traction Power Controller
T X R Controller
Commercial Controller
Engineering Controller
Signal & Telecommunication Controller
Security Controller
Crew Controller
ETL Controller
F O I S In-charge


The entire organization works round the clock, all days of the year without any interruption to monitor actual movement of trains on the entire rail network. The detailed organization of the control selected and duties assigned to employees depends on the demands of the transport task appropriate to each grade of employee or to diversity in the transport task. The Chief Controller is the head of Divisional Control Organization.

Basic Function of control:
1. Train Control:
a) This job is done by SCOR(Section Controller).
b) Each SCOR is provided with the master chart of that section.
c) In the master chart the path of M/E and Passenger trains are charted in
different colors.
d) This master chart helps in making advance planning by SCOR.
e) With the help of master chart, SCOR guides the SM and Yard Master
relating to the movement of trains.
f) SCOR gets advices regarding train operation and optimum use of wagons
and engines from the CHC and Dy. CHC.
g) Supervising & regulating movement of trains from station to station on the
section to avoid delay to trains and to maximize utilization of the capacity of
the section by :-
1. Monitoring movement of trains from station to station and recording
paths and detention on charts.
2. Arranging crossing and precedence of trains judiciously.
3. Arranging working of departmental and material trains.
4. Giving time signal to all stations on the section daily at appointed time.
5. Fulfilling interchange commitment.
6. Arranging proper movement of assisting/banking/light engines.
7. Clearance of sick wagons from Roadside stations.
8. Arrangement of relief for 10 hours duty staff.
9. Incident management on rail network & at station.
10. Arranging Engineering and/or power blocks in such a way as to involve
minimum disturbance to train running.
11. Maintaining fluidity of yards by controlling the flow of stock in and out
of yard.
12. Arranging Speedy relief in case of accidents.
2. Traffic control is the general and over-riding control of supervision of the
movement of goods and coaching traffic on the section. It is exercised by:
a) Traffic Control means controlling and regulating the movement and
distribution of coaching and goods stock and directing it’s loading,
unloading, dispatch and arranges passage through yards.
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
13
b) The aim of traffic control is to maximize unloading and loading in the
division, fulfill the interchanging of trains and effective utilization of the
available resources such as engines, wagons and bankers etc.
c) This job is performed by Dy. CHC in the division such as ordering the
movement of goods train, allotting the wagons to goods shed and station for
loading, giving special attention to block rakes, giving inward traffic for
loading, advise regarding running of loaded or empty wagon rakes.
d) Granting of blocks to engineering, OHE and S&T departments.
e) Look out for speed restrictions and running of material train and give blocks
for repairs and maintenance in such a manner so that it would not affect train
movement.
f) To admit trains in yard in such a way so that working capacity of the yard is
not affected.
g) Collecting information from the various section in respect of -
i. Registration of wagons outstanding at stations and arrangements for
supply of wagons.
ii. Number of wagons loaded and empty wagons/rakes awaiting despatch.
h) Arranging running, regulation, putting back and cancellation of trains. (both
freight & coaching) and to ensure optimum utilization of loco and staff to
derive maximum benefit..
i) Collecting stock position from the different stations, marshalling and
terminal yards, arranging supply of wagons against pending registration and
ensure optimum utilization of stock by securing maximum loads for trains
with minimum detention
j) Arrangement of crew & Guard for freight trains.
k) Monitoring and coordinating working of yards, goods shed sidings, locoshed,
TXR depots etc and to keep liaison with adjoining Railways and
Division for interchange commitments.
l) Keep strict vigil on the wagons, which are unable to move and make
arrangement for quick repair of them.
m) In case of accident inform all the concerned officials and the other staff.
n) To make arrangement of men for speedy availability of assistance at
accident site including ART/MRV, crane etc and ensure quick despatch of
the break down in case of accidents and other coordination.
3. Power control is responsible for provision of motive power to all trains by
maintaining position of locomotive
(a) Requisitioning engines from loco sheds for all operating requirements, i.e.
Train working. Shunting and Banking.
(b) Ensuring most economical use of engines by close supervision both in
Traffic Yards and sheds.
(c) Ensuring the return of engines to “Home Sheds” at regular intervals for
servicing and maintenance.
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
14
(d) Ensuring an even balance of engines and crews between running sheds for
meeting demands of traffic,
(e) Ensuring that light engine kilometers is kept to the minimum.
(f) Provide guidance to running staff for troubleshooting.
4. Carriage and Wagon control is responsible to assist the train and traffic
control and to-
(a) Ensure timely examination and fitness of all trains
(b) To keep a watch over the detachment of sick wagons/coaches and to arrange
for their early repair and fitness.
(c) Keeping a watch over availability of vital C & W components, like Air
Hoses, Washers, clamps etc. and efficient working of equipment & machines
in C&W depot to avoid detention to trains.
(d) To keep a watch over placement of wagons/coaches in sick line and their
release.
(e) To keep account of detention to trains on C&W account and take remedial
action.
(f) To provide guidance to running staff for trouble shooting.
(g) For Electrical Multiple units, this function is performed by EMU controller.
(h) Monitor the movement of POH due stock to workshops.
5. Commercial control assists the Traffic control.
(a) To expeditiously dispose off unclaimed and unconnected wagons. Parcel
consignments.
(b) To keep a watch on detention to trains on commercial account like Alarm chain
pulling. Carriage watering, parcel working etc., and take remedial measures.
(c) To ensure quick transshipment of sick wagons by arranging matching stock and
labour.
(d) To keep a watch over submission of station returns.
(e) Monitoring of public complaints lodged at the stations.
(f) To ensure proper maintenance of public amenities available at stations.
(g) Any other job entrusted by Sr. DCM/DCM.
6. Traction power control is provided to assist in Traffic and Train control fora)
Arranging maintenance blocks for OHE
b) Arranging alternative power supply in case of tripping etc., though remote
control.
c) Monitoring OHE failure and taking remedial action.
d) Monitoring detention of trains on OHE accounts.
e) Guiding running/station staff in trouble shooting.
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
15
7. Engineering control:
Monitors imposition & cancellation of Engineering Restrictions, working of track
machines & monitoring integrated maintainable blocks, co- ordinates works during
maintenance blocks and running of Material trains.
8. Signal control assists Traffic and Train control and is responsible-
(a) To keep a watch over the S&T failures and take remedial action.
(b) To ensure efficient working of communication channels.
9. Security control is responsible for prevention of theft of property and assists
passengers in trains/stations.
10. Crew Control:
a) Crew control ensures availability of Train crew (Loco Pilot).
b) He has got the details of all kinds of loco pilot available in the division like
Goods & passenger.
c) Issue instruction to all depot/Lobbies regarding movement of crew so that crew
may be available for the traffic in all directions as per forecast.
d) Maintain the balance of crew with all adjoining divisions.
e) Arrange relief for loco pilot and avoid bursting of 10 Hour rule.
12. ETL Control:
Issues instructions to ETL staff if complained regarding fan, light, Battery and
dynamo in train.
Functions of control:
The main functions of Traffic Control are:
a. Continuous supervision of the movement of all traffic in the controlled area
with a view to achieve the maximum possible operating efficiency.
b. Correct ordering of trains and use of locomotives so as to reduce to a minimum
the productive time of power and personnel, and losses on account of wasted
haulage capacity on trains and thus to keep the "turn round" as low as possible;
c. Systematic maintenance of accurate charts of train movement and the
arrangement of crossing and precedence to the greatest advantage.
d. Analysis of detentions to trains
e. Planning, ordering and running of goods trains to the best possible paths.
f. Maintaining the fluidity of marshalling yards/freight terminals.
g. Taking remedial action in the event of yard/terminal congestion.
h. To allot and distribute coaching and goods stock and direct its loading,
dispatch, and movement, particularly through intermediate marshalling yards,
and to so direct its placement and quick release so as to attain the quickest
possible "turn round" and ensure elimination of avoidable detentions to goods
stock at loading and unloading points and at transshipment stations.
(Zonal Railway Training Institute, Central Railway – Bhusawal)
16
i. To keep in the closest touch with the operation of continuous sections and
divisions so as to avoid congestion and lack of fluidity;
j. Supply of information to adjoining controls, terminals and engine changing
stations regarding the movement of trains to enable adequate timely
arrangements for their reception and onward dispatch.
k. Arranging engineering and other department blocks with minimum detention to
traffic.
l. Running of material trains and other track machines, tower wagons etc.
m. Arranging relief for engine crew and Guard.
n. Ensuring maximum utilization of locomotive.
o. Issuing instructions for train working in case of equipment failures and
whenever abnormal method or working has to be resorted to.
p. Speedy arrangements for relief rescue and restoration in the event of accident.
q. To assist in the realistic planning of time tables and punctual running of
passenger trains in co-ordination with various departments other divisions and
other railways.
r. To keep a watch over damaged stock at road side stations, yards and sick lines
and to ensure that they are promptly attended to.
s. To rectify immediately the irregularities on the part of line staff and provide
them necessary guidance.
t. To provide operations management information.
u. To ensure smooth functioning of FOIS and other IT applications.
v. To provide an impulse of human energy and brain power throughout the section
and by coordination and direction ensure the free movement of traffic and
thereby obtain the maximum output from each unit involved at the minimum
cost to the administration.
The functions of the Control organization may, for the purpose of understanding be
conveniently classified under the heads of planning, execution and review, though
in practice, of course, all three activities would be going on simultaneously.

Functions of the Traffic Department

Functions of the Traffic Department

1. Proper and Economical use of available resources such as locomotives, Rolling stock, track, signalling and telecommunication equipment and manpower etc.
2. Timely planning for additional line/track and rolling stock capacities based on realistic traffic forecasts.
3. Better Quality of service: This will include the following:-
A. Passenger Train Operation
(i) Better Time-Table.
(ii) Punctuality of passenger carrying trains.
(iii) Adequate & proper accommodation for passengers to travel.
(iv) Safety of passengers.
 B. (Goods Train Operation)
(i) Prompt, regular and assured supply of proper type of wagons for loading.
(ii) Quick, assured, and safe transit of goods.
4. To identify business opportunities through market studies.
5. To define and determine product design and product mix for freight and passenger segments through close interaction with customers/markets.
6. To collect customer/market information through market surveys and customer complaints.
7. To determine cost of different product and services.
8. To recommend pricing of different product and services.
9. Maximum loading by prompt supply of wagons.
10. Attracting height rated and high yielding traffic.
11. For additional capacity to meet the future growth of traffic efficiently.
12. Ensuring Safety.

Hierarchical set up and line of control of Operating Dept, at the Divisional, Zonal and Railway Board level.


History of Rail Transport in India

The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1849, there was not a single kilometer of railway line in India. By 1929, there were 66,000 km (41,000 mi) of railway lines serving most of the districts in the country. At that point of time, the railways represented a capital value of some British

Sterling Pounds 687 million, and carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods a year. The railways in India were a group of privately owned companies. The military engineers of the East India Company, later of the British Indian Army, contributed to the birth and growth of the railways

which gradually became the responsibility of civilian technocrats and engineers. However, construction and operation of rail transportation in the North West Frontier Province and in foreign nations during war or for military purposes was the responsibility of the military engineers.

In 1845, along with Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, Hon. Jaganath Shunkerseth(known as Nana Shankarsheth ) formed the Indian Railway Association. Eventually, the association was incorporated into the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and Jeejeebhoy and Shankarsheth became the only two Indians among the ten directors of the GIP railways. As a director, Shankar sheth participated in the very first train journey in India between Bombay and Thane, which took approximately 45 minutes.

A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the railways from 1857 onwards. The Calcutta-Allahabad-Delhi line was completed by 1864. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible for linking this with the

Great Indian Peninsula Railway, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta via Allahabad. This route was officially opened on 7 March 1870 and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that “it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system”. 

By 1875, about £95 million were invested by British companies in Indian guaranteed railways.

By 1880 the network route was about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives and in 1896 sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railways.

In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to the modern day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh and soon various independent kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In 1901, an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally invested under Lord Curzon. It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and had a government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907, almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. With the arrival of World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. With the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and collapse.

In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km, a need for central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on the East India Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the management of the Railways and detached the finances of the Railways from other governmental revenues.

The period between 1920 and 1929 was a period of economic boom. Following the Great Depression, the company suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Trains were diverted to the Middle East, railway workshops were converted to ammunitions workshops and some tracks (such as Churchgate to Colaba in Bombay) were dismantled for use in war in other countries. By 1946 all rail systems had been taken over by the government.